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AP Human Geography Intro Chapter 1

Chapter 1 APHG

Alex Egert

on 24 August 2013

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Transcript of AP Human Geography Intro Chapter 1

Chapter 1
What is human geography?
The Five themes of Geography
Human geography is how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our localities, regions, and the world.
Globalization is a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders.
It is also a set of outcomes that are felt from these global processes-outcomes that are unevenly distributed and differently manifested across the world.
Human and physical geography
Human geography is the study of human phenomena on Earth
Physical geography is the study of physical phenomena on Earth.
Spacial distribution and patterns
Mapping the spacial distribution of a phenomenon is typically the first step to understanding it.
By looking at a map of how something is distributed across space, a geographer can raise questions about the processes that create and sustain the particular pattern of the distribution, and what relationships exists between different places and things.
Location highlights the geographical people and things on the Earth's surface affects what happens and why.
Some geographers develop models describing the locational properties of a particular phenomena.
Geographers study the reciprocal relationship between humans and environment.
The US Army Corps of engineers changed the course of the Kissimmee River, this can be an example of human environment relations.
The process in which specific regions acquire characteristics that differentiate them from others in the same country.
Varied economic activities in US cities: financial markets in New York; insurance companies in Hartford, Connecticut; Shipping and technology in San Francisco.
Location is a geographical position of a place or thing
All places have unique human and physical characteristics; geographers study the special character and meaning of places
Region is a basic unit for geographic study
▪ Geographers divide the world into regions to help them interpret
▪ Regions can be defined on the basis of: physical and human characteristics.
All places have features that distinguish them from other places.
Physical characteristics can be landforms, bodies of water, ecosystems,.
Human characteristics can be bridges, roads, buildings, culture, language.
Movement is how people and places are linked by communication and the flow of people, ideas and goods.
Transportation, communication, trade
Patterns of movement such as migration
linkages and connections.
Absolute Location
Position on earth's surface using the coordinate system of longitude and latitude.
Exact location.
Relative location
Position on earth's surface relative to other features
A representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features, cities, roads, ect.
Implications of relationships among phenomena in places
Mental Map
Maps that we carry in our minds of places we have been and places we have heard of.
Reference maps
Shows locations of places and geographical features.
Reference maps focus on accuracy in showing the absolute location of places.
Thematic Maps
Maps that tell stories typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographical phenomenon.
Formal Regions
A formal region has a shared trait- it can be a shared cultural trait or a physical trait.
Functional Region
Defined by a particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Functional regions have a shared political, social, or economic purpose.
Perceptual Region
Intellectual constructs designed to help us understand the nature and distribution of phenomena.
one of several transport phenomena that occur in nature.
Interprets relationships among patterns and processes on different scales.
Shows the interconnectivity of places.

Contagious Diffusion
A form of expansion diffusion in which nearly all adjacent individuals and places are affected.
Hierarchical Diffusion
A pattern in which the main channel of diffusion is some segment of those who are susceptible to what is being diffused.
Stimulus Diffusion
underlying principle of a characteristic spreads although characteristic failed.
An example is McDonalds in India selling Vegetable Burgers.
Relocation Diffusion
Involves the actual movement of individuals who already adopted the idea and carry it elsewhere.
Relationships and interactions between human phenomenons of language, religion, identity, and physical phenomenons of land forms, climate, environmental change with the aid of the five themes of geography along with the spatial distribution and interactions.
Physical geography is affected by relationships between the energy, water, hydrological, tectonic and erosion cycles.
The Harlem Shake is contagious diffusion because it spread on "YouTube" and by people. It didn't necessarily spread from someone famous (hierarchically) or relocate.
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