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Cold War WHAP
Transcript of Cold War WHAP
Developed at the end off WWII. USSR and US locked in an ideological battle between Communism and Democratic Capitalism. Called a Cold War b/c no actual fighting between the USSR and US took place- only through proxy wars like the Vietnam War and Civil War in Angola.
Containment v World Rev
The United Nations: A Structure for Peace
Formed 10-24-1945 to replace ineffective L.O.N.
Now have all major powers (ahem, US) as members and new structure.
General Assembly and Security Council: 5 permanent members (US, FR, BR, USSR, and CH have veto power).
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
: focused on expanding human rights worldwide, and now includes a stand against genocide, war crimes, gov't oppression, and crimes against women.
Protection of refugees
: focused on protect refugees who flee from their homes in time of war, famine, and natural disaster. UN works through NGO's and the UNHCR (UN High Commisioner for Refugees). First case of refugees were Palestinians fleeing w/ creation of Israel.
: focus on easing tensions. Also work with IMF and World Bank to provide loans and advice to developing nations, and WTO and GATT (Gen. agreement on tariffs and trade) to promote free trade.
Beginning of Cold Wa
r: Churchill's 1946 speech that claimed an Iron Curtain had falled between W. and E. Europe. Stalin had created satellite states (dependent on USSR import and export only through them). US --> form containment policy b/c believed USSR wanted to spread its influence further.
: 1947, Truman gave economic and military support to stop the spread of Communism to Greece and Turkey (USSR wanted base in Turkey and Greek communists were close to taking over nation.
: After WWII US spent $25 billion in relief for Europe to stabalize Europe and keep Communism from taking root. USSR = COMECON (lol the original comicon).
The Problem in Germany
Post WWII, divided GY (and Berlin itself) into 4 regions for the US, BR, FR, and USSR.
The democratic nations combined their territories into one West Germany (1948). This did not please Stalin who then enacted a blockade around Berlin.
US and BR then instituted the
to give food, clothing, medicine, and fuel until Soviet ended the blockade in 1949. US looked real good, while USSR looked like bullies (PR nightmare, really. Starving women and children?)
1940s and 50s = increased tension b/t US and USSR. US supes afraid of Soviets develoing nuclear weapons. Both tried to surpass each other with nuclear bombs (always a solid idea).
: 1957 Soviets launched first satellite into space= Space Race. US launched its own satellite (1958) and landed a man on da moon in 1969.
Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD, what a great acronym)
: Both USSR and US created ICBMs (inter-continental ballistic missiles). Realized, oh crap, we can totes completely obliterate each other. Let's not use these, because then we both die out. Did it stop them from improving weapons? Nah.
New Treaty Organizations
: North Atlanic Treaty Organization. Western nations pledge mutual support and cooperation. (BL, CA, DN, FR, BR, IC, LX, IT, NTH, and US).
1955 Warsaw Pact
: Stalin and Stalin's friends created their own mutual support pac (USSR, AL, E. GY, BU, CZH, HU, POL, RO).
Funnily, Communist Yugoslavia (under Tito) didn't join Warsaw Pact or follow Stalin. Western nations supported Tito when Stalin tried to have him overthrown. Even Albania bailed to support CH when CH and USSR stopped being BFFs in 1961.
: SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization) w/ AUS, US, BR, NZ, PAK, PH, and TH. CENTO (central treaty organization) w/ BR, IN, IQ, PAK, TU to stop spread of communism into ME.
: didn't join either side and played the superpowers to get aid from both.
Tito's Yugoslavia, Nehru's India, Kwame Nkrumah's Ghana, and Nasser's Egypt.
Great Leap Forward
(land collectivized into communes, if against sent to reeducation camps or killed. Failed massively, 20 mill died) and
(plan to solidify Mao's power like Stalin's purges, sent Red Guards to seize his enemies and send them to countryside for reeducation).
: 1961 on USSR and CH squabbled over their common border and competed for influence (like in Albania).
Reform under Deng Xiaping
: Mao dead in '76, Xiaoping in power in '81. Replaced communes w/ peasant-leased plots of land and let peasants sell portion of crops --> ag surplus. Factories made more consumer goods, foreign companies allowed to set up factories in economic zones in coastal CH.
Wanted political reform, too. '89 a peaceful student protest at Tiananmen Square in Beijing was met w/ force by gov't. Soldiers killed hundreds of people. Gov't suppressed all info on this. Hard to know exact #s.
Proxy Wars in Asia
Korean War 1950-53
: Northern territory controlled by USSR, the Souther territory held by US and allies. This war was fought to prevent Communist North from taking over and spreading communism to South Korea. UN sent military from 16 member nations (US sent most and US general Macarthur (led army in pacific theater of WWII) led forces). USSR didn't send troops, but send $$$. CH send troops. War ended in stalemate. Still have a divided Korea.
Vietnam War 1955-1975
: US sent $$ and advisers under Containment policy. Under Kennedy sent 16,000 advisers (a 15,000 increase) and now US couldn't lose the conflict: it would weaken our worldwide prestige.
We send troops under
and supported Ngo Dinh Diem's gov't, but many in S. VT didn't as he was Roman Catholic. Buddhist monk Thich Quan Duc set himself on fire (self-immolization) as protest.
N. VT leader Ho Chi Minh appealed to nationalist feeling to oppose US. Had S. VT forces working in guerilla-style attacks (Vietcong).
in US grew (first televised war and we weren't winning). Especially after Tet Offensive (N. VT invaded S. VT and showed US having a hard time). Led to Nixon withdrawing troops in '75.
: Communism spread to Laos and Cambodia.
Iron Curtain Nations
: '56 protests for better living conditions. New secretary of Polish Comm Party, Gomulka went for independent policy in Pol, but was still loyal to USSR. But he ended collectivization and such.
Other Crises of the 1960s
The Berlin Wall
: West Berlin banking, East Berliners fled (2.5 mill b/t 1949-1961) to the more prosperous city. USSR mad b/c it made communism look bad, so they built a wall to keep people in East Berlin. Wall torn down in 1989 (signified the end of Communist power).
Bay of Pigs Fiasco
: Fidel Castro took over Cuba in '59 as a Communist dictator. Nationalized businesses (like US owned sugar plantations, oh no). US broke off diplomatic ties (current event House Point available here!!) and so Castro became bffs with USSR. JFK then sent in a CIA operation where CIA brought Cuban refugees, newly trained, back to Cuba at Bay of Pigs to overthrow Castro. Total failure and cemented Cuba-Soviet alliance.
Cuban Missile Crisis
: Krushchev started to send nuclear missiles to Cuba in '62. Tbf, US sent nuclear missiles to Turkey. US heard that USSR sending nuclear missiles to Cuba, so set up a blockade to quarantine Cuba. Closest we got to actual war. Led to a hot line between US and Soviet offices.
Led to decrease in nuclear tensions w/ Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
Final Decades of Cold War
and Colder War: After 60s escalation, had a period of relaxed tensions (detente). Nixon visited USSR to sign Stategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) w/ Brezhnev, and also opened relations with China. US even started to sell excess grain to USSR.
But then USSR invaded Afghanistan in '79, so Carter halted grain export, ending detente. Reagan had high tensions, sent military and financial aid to Afghani gov't. Started arms race again, US program Star Wars (Strategic Defense Initiative) to destroy incoming nuclear missiles.
came to power in '85, more progressive, allowed two major reforms- prestroika (elements of capitalism) and glasnost (opening of Soviet society and political process to the people. US and USSR signed new INF Treaty decreased nuclear threat.
End of Cold War
: Gorbachev ended Soviet aid to satellite nations, ended military support of communist nations. More and more economic reform swept communist bloc, with many nations declaring independence and ended USSR in '91. Now back to being Russia.
in '68. Alexande Dubcek increased freedoms of speech and press and travel. He made political system more democratic. Wanted CZ to be independent from USSR. USSR sent in troops to crush it.
: '56 leader Nagy declared HU's freedom. Supported free elections and announced neutraity with his withdrawal from Warsaw Pact. USSR invaded, took Budapest, executed Nagy. Many Hungarians fled west as refugees.
Developments in Western Europe
For the most part, W. Euro benefitted from Cold War. Got aid from US (Marshall Plan).
European Economic Community (EEC)
: '57 free trade among members (most of W. Euro). Became the
EU ended internal tariffs and migration restrictions. Set up EU Parliament and a common currency, the Euro.
Northern Ireland Conflict
: Most of Ireland independent from UK in '22, but N. Ireland (Protestants) not. Conflict escalated in 60s w/ Irish Republican Army (IRA) and Ulster Defense Association (UDA). Some members of IRA commited terrorist acts in England like bombing London. Cease-fire in '94, IRA renounced terrorist acts.
Separatists in Spain
: Basque Homeland and Freedom (ETA) used terroism to try and achieve independence for the Basque region in Spain in '59. Killed successor of Franco, in 2011 declared end of violence and promised to work within political system for independence.
(there's a lot of 'em): Mostly for lack of quality higher education (to be fair, after WWII lot more people going). Biggest student protest in Paris, led to largest general strike in FR history (10 million). US students protested for civil rights and anti-war. Kent State student protest put down by National Guard, killing 4 unarmed students.
Harty, AP World History