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Human Reproductive Systems & Hormones
Transcript of Human Reproductive Systems & Hormones
FSH promotes spermatogenesis (production of male gametes).
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Male vs Female
Systems & Hormones
Reproductive hormones are involved in the changes of puberty, and in regulation of the menstrual cycle.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) are produced by the anterior pituitary gland.
Estrogen and progesterone are produced by the ovary.
FSH, LH, estrogen & progesterone work together to control the menstrual cycle.
FSH stimulates maturation of an ovum within its follicle.
As the follicle grows, it begins producing estrogen, which inhibits FSH, but stimulates LH production. Estrogen also increases the thickness of the endometrium.
LH stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone.
Progesterone (“the pregnancy hormone”) maintains the endometrium and inhibits production of FSH & LH, thereby inhibiting ovulation. If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum breaks down, and the pituitary gland will start producing FSH again to stimulate another follicle.
At this point, the endometrium is expelled from the uterus (menstruation).
Female Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System
Testosterone and other hormones collectively known as androgens are produced by the Leydig cells (near blood vessels of the interstitial tissue of the testes). It stimulates pre-natal development of the male genitalia, development of secondary sex characteristics (during puberty) and maintenance of the sex drive. Testosterone also stimulates maturation of sperm from secondary spermatocytes.
LH (in males, called interstitial cell stimulating hormone or ICSH) stimulates secretion of testosterone.
Estrogen also plays a role in puberty: it promotes the development of the female secondary sexual characteristics.