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Daniel Ridout

on 24 November 2016

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Transcript of Try again

MODERN HISTORY OF CHINA
Pre-Communist China
China's centralissues
Territorial
Control of the imperial centre
Cultural continuity
Double Tenth Revolution (10/10/1911)
--> Vast country stuck in the feudal system (ruled by warlords)
--> Qing Dynasty overthrown (last Emperor Puyi abdicates at 6yrs old)
--> Sun Yatsen (Nationalist) elected President
--> removed Imperial system
--> introduced a Republic for the first time
1911
Yuan Shikai takes over
Meanwhile, Yuan forbids main Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) & dissolves parliament.
WWI begins
Versailles Treaty bargains with Japan
(humiliation at hands of representatives)
Start of warlordism
Republic in question
Sun Yatsen returns
1919
1914
1921
Chinese Communist Party est. (CCP)
Japan gets
Shandong
Nationalism Democracy
Re-established Republic
Instituted
‘3 Principles of the People’
People's Livelihood

moderisation
land irrigation
industrialisation Colonisation systems: Peasant conscripted to address warlords
admitted CCP into GMD (1923)
Sun dies whilst negotiating with warlords
1925
Chiang Kai-Shek/
Jiang Jieshi
('The Generalissimo')
the communists into the country regions and the infamous Long March.
Red scarves became a symbol of communism and the sign of who to exterminate between what is known as the 'Nanking Decade' (1927-37).
ENTER
MAO ZEDONG
Mao Tse-Tung
-b. 1893 of comfortable rural family
-education in classical Chinese studies
-fought with his father
-attracted to communism whilst working at Beijing university
Chiang becomes the leader of the KMT until his death in 1975.
From the outset he starts a campaign to rid the KMT of the communists.
A purging of communists from the KMT party soon drives
Mao in brief
Mao really gained his notoriety because of his role in the Long March. It was here that he was elected Chairman of CCP.
In 1921 Mao Zedong was 1 of 11 people who founded the Chinese Communist Party including party loyals: Deng Xiaoping, Zhou Enlai
1st Premier of People's republic of China
Deputy premier, but took control in 1977 shortly after Mao's death.
Zhou Enlai
Deng Xiaoping
After WW2 with the defeat and exit of the Japanese from China, the KMT and CCP engaged in a bitter Civil War.

Look at: To Live
(37.30 - 40.13)
Mao died 9 Sept.1976. His body is preserved in a Mausoleum in Tiananmen Square.Read Red Azalea p. 295 - 298 (blamed on Jiang Qing)
CULTURAL REVOLUTION (1966 - 76)
Mao convinced the CCP that Marxism-Leninism was not suitable for China and that they should focus on the peasants and farmers (80%) of population.
The little red book
1957 Hundred Flowers Campaign
1958 - 61
Great Leap Forward
Mao encouraged criticism of the
party; in the end it was just a
test to catch out 'rightists'or
'capitalist roaders'.
Second in charge after Mao. Had a large role in Cultural Revolution and created little red book.
Lin Biao
Public denounciations
Memorise
Study
Recite
Destroying religion
Personality cult: Maoism
To Live: 132 - 134
(Wedding/Red book)
The Red Guards
Destroying culture
To Live: 121
Destroying tradition
Burn books
Only approved music allowed
Burn paintings/sculptures
Ban artworks
Quotations and sayings of Mao Zedong
'The Jet Plane' was a typical form of punishment and humiliation
...much of the torment of the Cultural Revolution was carried out by...
Due to the invasion of Japan throughout the early 20th century, the CCP joined the KMT in 1923 but was forced to oppose and fight against them by 1927. This opposition led to the Long March. Despite clashes, due to Japanese aggression the KMT and CCP formed the 'United Front' from 1937 - 45 (though the alliance was bitter and untrustworthy). Chiang Kaishek is often viewed to be more interested in attacking the Communists than the Japanese, saying: 'The Japanese are a disease of the skin (easy to treat), the communists are a disease of the soul/heart (almost incurable).'
Mao encouraged the CCP to use guerilla tactics to fight KMT and against the Japanese (due to lack of equipment and technology very few 'open' battles were fought). Open warfare became a new tactic after WW2 when the Chinese people had lost faith in the KMT.
After his death, Mao became immortalised as a symbol of the continuum communism.
In 1962, Mao's GLF is denounced at the 'Conference of the 7000' by Liu Shaoqi.
Still Chairman, Mao loses much of his power to Liu, Deng, Zhou. A period of Liberalisation follows, though it is not long before Mao plans his most devastating and infamous re-entry into Chinese and World History.
Gang of Four is allowed to wreck their havoc, but really..
Wang Hongwen
Jiang Qing
Yao Wenyuan
Zhang Chunqiao
Gang of Four
After defeating the KMT, Chairman Mao established the People's Republic of China on 1st October 1949.
After controlling much of China from 1925 - 46, Chiang Kai-Shek leader of KMT is forced into exile in Taiwan in 1949 with foundation of Communist China. Still internationally considered the President of China,he swears to return, but doesn't. He dies in 1975.
Mao idolised Stalin and tried to align himself with his policies. In their only meeting in December 1949, Stalin was cold to Mao, making him wait for their first meeting and subsequent meetings during Mao's visit to Moscow.
Things did get out of control and even Mao tried to soften the horrendous things that happened.
To Live: 147.36 Capitalist Roader
148 - 2hr Birth
Destroying the establishment
The army called to restored order and took over in many areas like factories, teaching and communes.
Focus moved towards promoting...
revolution in the man's mind
the communes
All in all it was still a horrific time in China's history
Although Mao encourages collectivisation and strong industrial production (through 5 year plan) to catch up with the west, really his first notable initiative is the Hundred Flowers Campaign.
At first landlords are denounced and their land divided to give peasants their own plots.
Under the 5 year plan 1952 - 57, land distribution is a major initiative of Mao.
Small plots are then allocated into collectives
And by the 1970s collectives are replaced by communes which could be up to 60,000 people
set up practical incentives - more money
Mao's communes divided back to family
first time in 30 years food rationing abolished
Deng tried to make communism more efficient
Progress made through hardwork
Less revolution. More realism.
Stood on the extreme left for Maoist philosophy, permanent revolution and extreme egalitarian of the working classes.
Read: Red Azalea p.287 - 294
Stood on the right for reform, modernisation and higher living conditions.
Stood in the middle for revolution but modernisation at the same time.
'to get rich is glorious'
MAO
Deng Xiaoping
Jiang Qing
Hua Guofeng
"I don't care if it's a black cat or a white cat,
as long as it catches mice."
- 1961 Party Conference
Deng still very much a communist despite reforms
Tiananmen Square Massacre June 4, 1989
After Mao's death there were 3 leadership options for China. Symbolically and practically these leaders stood for very different things that would have tremendous repercussions for China and its people.
One child policy 1978
Strategies
Controversy
Gang of four tried and used as a symbol of a transition away from Mao's policies
about the party line not democractic line
means of production remained property of community not individual
siphoning of information and news
filtering of media
But for many, Hua really stood for the '2 Whatevers'
4 Modernisations
Science and Technology
5th Modernisation: Democratic Rights for People
Known for being arrested in 1979 for 15 years for posting his article on the Democracy Wall about the 5th modernisation
Whatever Mao said must be right
Whatever Mao did must be continued
So ultimately after 2 years (by late 1978), Deng Xiaoping was the only sensible choice for a China that needed to move forward. And by 1981, Deng was the undisputed leader of China.
Industry
Defense
Agriculture
this stressed economic self-reliance
access to advanced technologies
encouraged foreign investment
export-led growth
opened its markets to foreign trade
Became one of the world's largest economies
Results
Memorable Quotes
One of the world's largest nuclear powers
As Napoleon Bonaparte once said
In the 19th Century, China was stripped by foreign powers into a state of humiliation and submission. In the 20th Century, China has has been pulled, pushed, squeezed and hung out to dry by both foreign pressure and internal turmoil. Its cultural identity has been questioned (Cultural Revolution), its territory has been contested (Taiwan/South China Sea), and the nature of its centre has been challenged (5th Modernisation). In the last 30 years, China has emerged as the world superpower to watch. It holds the world's largest population, and some current projections estimate that by as early as 2016 it will be the world's leading economy, and by 2032 will be spending the country that invests the most on its military!
"China is a sleeping giant. Let her sleep, for when she wakes, she will shake the world."
'Let a Hundred Flowers Bloom'
higher living standards and opportunities for chinese
though a 'basterdized' form of communism,
symbolically Maoist ideas are still at the heart of China's government
Wei Jingsheng
Control of Tibet
Widening gap between rich and poor
Human rights issues
May 4th Movement
Yuan discredited. Dies 5 June 1916
(For the sake of the republic, Sun Yatsen takes a sideline role as railway minister)
Yuan declares himself emperor (Jan, 1916)
United front of Guomindang or Kuomintang (KMT) and CCP both sponsored by Russia
Communist tactics:
Lure them into communist dominated areas
1. 'When the enemy advances, we retreat
2. When the enemy halts and encamps, we trouble them
3. When the enemy seeks to avoid a battle, we attack!
4. When the enemy retreats, we pursue!'
Nationalist tactics were forced
to turn to encirclement, fortify
then advance (the steel noose - further strengthened by concrete blockhouses)
Jianxi Soviet
'Mao was 30% bad but 70% good'
Old ideas
Crush the '4 Olds'
Old Customs
Old Culture
Old habits
The 3 or 5 Anti's (changes)
1.Corruption,
2.Waste,
3.Bureaucratism
4.Fraud
5.Cheating
(clear aim against bourgeois)
The Four Pest Campaign
One of the first initiatives
of the GLF was to target sparrows
mosquitoes, rats and flies (sparrows was later changed to bedbugs)
CHINA TODAY
Conflict with Japan over
Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands
ROLES OF 21ST
CENTURY CHINA
1. Developing country
2. Emerging Power
3. UN Security Council
4. Role in G20 (and current G2... G1 Economy by 2016?)
5. Regional Power
(and alliance with other powers to influence global change)
Xi Jinping
"Chinese Dream"
http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/worldviews/wp/2013/05/13/are-japan-and-china-really-ancient-enemies-or-is-this-something-much-newer/
US Military Presence
US Base in Darwin (entering Pacific Region)
July 2014 Abe visit signaled FTA with Aus, but also strengthened need for Japanese military presence in Pacific.
AMERICA
POWER BALANCE
CHINA
This is where communist suspicion
underlies all activities in China.
Fear creeps in.
To Live: 45.11 - 50.23
(death of capitalist/liberation army
framed)
Play To Live: GLF
-50.37 to feeding at communes
-106 (smelting irons) - 110.55 (ox analogy)
In April 1915, Yuan also accepted Japan's
21 demands. These demands essentially gave
Japan more control over Manchuria, claims for
Shandong province, and China's economy. It questioned China's sovereignty, and only with US and British disapproval was much of the demands reneged (ended 'Open Door Policy' in China but also caused distrust of Japan).
(Largely student led revolution over treatment by the west and catalyst for new ideas and thoughts)
Collectives
GLF Farming
Steel
GLF Intro
The Rape of Nanking spelled a devastating time for China as the Japanese moved south from their puppet state of Manchukuo (1933) through to Shanghai and then Nanking (1937). The Rape of Nanking was a horrible, horrible event that saw the literal rape of thousands, as well as killing of men, women and children. It still is a blight on Sino-Japanese relations to this day.
Youtube: Mao's bloody revolution 41.54
Read: Red Azalea p.302 - 303
'Pivot' (or re-balance) to Asia








"We do not benefit from a relationship where we put our values aside."
(19 - 21.51)
Henry Kissinger, 2012
'Central planning, moreover, provided few incentives to emphasize quality innovation. Since all a manager produced would be bought by a relevant ministry, quality was not a consideration. And innovation was, in effect, discouraged lest it throw the whole planning edifice out of kilter...
...Jobs, education, and most perquisites depended on some kind of personal relationship. It is one of history's ironies that Communism, advertised as bringing a classless society, tended to breed a privileged class of feudal proportions...
...The Chinese leadership would not let ideology constrain their reforms; they would instead redefine "socialism with Chinese characteristics" so that 'Chinese characteristics' were what ever brought great prosperity to China' - p. 307 - 401 (On China)

(What ideas are being expressed here?)
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