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Pre-Confederation Timeline 1763-1867
Transcript of Pre-Confederation Timeline 1763-1867
Confederation Timeline 1763-1867 1763 Treaty of Paris British and French reached an agreement. French took Guadeloupe (rich sugar island), St. Pierre and Miquelon (fishing islands) and Britain received control of Canada. Royal Proclamation The French now lived with the British in Quebec but the king had decided to assimilate them. This meant that the French would lose their language and culture. The king also decided to give the First Natives a huge area of land. This angered the people of the 13 colonies for they felt that they had fought for those lands and the king had just given them to those "Savages". This was the first act the king made to enrage the 13 colonies. 1774 The Quebec Act The attempt to turn Quebec into a colony with a pure British culture had failed. The French were not going to just give up their culture. The king decided to forget his proclamation in 1763 and pass a law that allowed French Canadiens' the ability to keep their language and culture. In this act, the king also announced to expand the size of the Quebec colony by taking much of the land given to the First Nations 11 years earlier. Doing this, the king angered the 13 colonies even more. They were becoming restless under British rule. American Revolution The 13 Colonies had become so restless that they rebelled. They went up to Canada hoping the Canadiens' would join the revolt. They captured Montreal and then marched to Quebec City. The Americans had though that the Canadiens' would join, but they did not. The invasion of Quebec failed. The 13 Colonies though did not give up in the War of Independence. Loyalists Migrate After the rebellion, many people in the 13 Colonies still were loyal to the crown. The loyalists' decided to sail to up to Nova Scotia. Almost 40 000 people migrated. This doubled the population of the colony, creating many new communities. Britain recognized the United States of America. The new country was now independent. The loyalists' that had migrated had endured cruelty and wanted their own colony. Britain agreed and the western portion of Nova Scotia became New Brunswick. Cape Breton Island became a seperate colony and Ile Saint-Jean was renamed Prince Edward Island. 1783 United States of America 1784 New Colonies 1812 The War of 1812 Tensions between Britain and the United States by 1812 had began to heat up once again. A war was soon to begin. British soldiers fought against the invaders. The Americans' burned down the British colony's government building in York. The British afterwards invaded Washington, DC and burned down the White House. In the end, the war ended in a deadlock with a Treaty of Ghent. The Treaty required both sides to return to the territory they had gained. Between 1815 - 1850, more than 800 000 immigrants came to ports of Halifax, Saint John and Quebec City. Britain was eager to open lands to farming after the war, planning for immigrants from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. The people traveled by ship to Canada, though the ships were filthy and disease rich. Many people died on the journey. The Constitutional Act gave British Colonies (Canada) a new form of government that allowed each colony to have its own governor and elected assembly. The Legislative Assembly was elected, but it had little power compared to the governor. Many colonists found this unfair for a British appointed governor was controlling all affairs in Canada. These people were called Reformers. This act divided Quebec into two parts. The land west of the Ottawa River became Upper Canada and East of the River became Lower Canada. In 1867, the colonies decided that Canada would become independent. In Canada there was 4 provinces; New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec and Ontario. By 1858, there were seven colonies in British North America (soon to be Canada). There was Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, British Columbia, Vancouver Island and in the Province of Canada there was Canada East and West. By Madyson 7.1 1830 Rebellion in Lower Canada People had become unhappy with their government in both Upper and Lower Canada. Louis-Joseph Papineau led a group called the Patriotes. In 1834, the group proposed the Ninety-Two Resolution to the Assembly. They won 75 percent of the votes. Now the Patriotes just waited for an answer. Finally in 1837, British government responded but with a startling rejection of all the demands. The Patriotes were furious and went out through the colony calling for arms. By November 1837, fighting had broke out in Saint-Denis and the Patriotes won. Shortly after, the British forces destroyed the Patriotes in Saint-Charles and Saint-Eustache. The Patriote uprising had ended and was crushed. 1850s Political Deadlock in the
Province of Canada By the 1850s, people in the Province of Canada had become unhappy with the political system. At the time, there was just one assembly for both Canada East and West. The English made up the majority of the assembly and Canadiens' were often outvoted on important issues. One of the issues in the assembly was the representation by population (rep by pop). This meant that the larger the population, the more the representatives. This rule was not the system of Canada. The Act of Union was Canada's system. In this act, both Canada East and West had the same amount of seats in the assembly. This had worked in the 1840s but as Canada West began to outgrow Canada East, the Canada West began to demand for more seats. They wanted a rep by pop plan but the East objected. This lead to a deadlock in the assembly. 1864 Breaking the Deadlock George Brown was the leader of the clear grits and had convinced his party to join in a union with the Liberal-Conservatives and Les Bleus (conservative Canadiens). George asked in return for they to support his plans to unite all the colonies. He proposed federalism. This would mean that each colony would have its own government to deal with its own affairs. There also was a central government that dealt with conflicts that would affect the whole union.