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3D printers

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vitor magalhães

on 6 May 2014

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Transcript of 3D printers

BIOPRINTING
What is Bioprinting?
3D PRINTING
The technology that changes everything
3D Printers
The second industrial revolution is NOW!
In the 2D world, a sheet of printed paper output from a printer was “designed” on the computer in a program such as Microsoft Word.
In the 3D world, a 3D printer uses a file that is created with the use of a 3D modeling program, either from scratch or beginning with a 3D model created by a 3D scanner.
Either way, the program creates a file that is sent to the 3D printer. Along the way, software slices the design into hundreds, or more likely thousands, of horizontal layers.
They create a three dimensional object by building it layer by successive layer, until the entire object is complete. It’s much like printing in two dimensions on a sheet of paper, but with an added third
dimension: UP.

It can “print” in plastic, metal, nylon, and over a hundred other materials.
3D Printer: how it works?
3D printing technology can be implemented in many fields such as:
Civil construction, Architecture:
Electronic
Textile industry
Food
Military forces

Main applications in
medicine
3D-Print Stem Cells
Printing cardiac tissue

Printing cartilage tissue
Printing cells that help the study of cancer cells.

5)Printing organs
3D bioprinting
Printing organs with 3D-print tecnologic is a complex process that can be summed in four levels of complexity:
Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

This level include the most complex and challenging organs in 3D printing tecnologic.

Exemples: Heart, kidneys, liver.

Flat structures composed mostly by one tipe of cells.

Example: Skin

Tubular structures composed by two major types of cells.

Exemple: Blood vessels, Trachea...
Hollow organs with more complex functions than the other metioned before.

Exemple: Bladder, stomach...
3D Human Liver Tissue Model
Challenges
The ability to print full-size functioning organs depends on figuring out how to seed 3D-printed organs with both large and small blood vessels that can supply nutrient-rich blood to keep living tissue healthy.
So far, no lab has succeeded in 3D-printing organs with the network of blood vessels necessary to sustain them, but efforts are being made as we speak, to solve this problem:
Bioengineers from the University of Pennsylvania have turned the problem inside out by using a 3D printer called a RepRap to make templates of blood vessel networks out of sugar. Once the networks are encased in a block of cells, the sugar can be dissolved, leaving a functional vascular network behind.
Organovo has begun working toward that goal by experimenting with 3D-printing blood vessels 1 millimeter or larger in width. The company has also built tissues containing tiny blood vessels about 50 microns or smaller (1 millimeter is equal to 1,000 microns) — enough to sustain a millimeter-thick chunk of organ.

Even the best 3D printers remain limited when working on the tiniest scales of building blood vessels and organs. But Williams, head of the Cardiovascular Innovation Institute's effort to create a 3D-printed heart, agreed with Organovo that the solution involves harnessing the self-organization tendencies of living cells.
3D Printers and the Industry



"3D Cell Bioprinting for Regenerative Medicine
Research and Therapies"
"Tissue engineering by
self-assembly and bio-printing of living cells"
"Bioprinting living structures"
“Scaffold-free
vascular tissue engineering using bioprinting”
A Look into the FUTURE
Biomateriais

Fábio Cruz
Hélder Melro
Manuel Cunha
Vítor Magalhães

Bioengenharia

Printing with 3D printing technologic is a complex process that can be summed in four levels of complexity:
Full transcript