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Choral music presentation May 2015

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Dylan Spielvogel

on 21 September 2016

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Transcript of Choral music presentation May 2015

The study of choral music enriches the social, emotional, aesthetic, intellectual and creative musical development of students. Participation in a choral ensemble reinforces and promotes good study habits, teamwork, responsibility, positive self-esteem and contributes beneficially to the school and culture of the greater community.


The comprehensive choral program should provide an understanding of the basic properties of melody, rhythm, harmony and form that is presented in a sequential course of study. Students should be exposed to a variety of experiences in performing, creating and responding to all styles of music so that they can be artistically literate, informed, life-long participants in music and the arts.


This document will provide a sequential comprehensive program of choral music instruction for intermediate, secondary and advanced secondary level students. The outcomes contained herein cover appropriate areas of music knowledge, technical proficiency and performance skills, critical evaluation and aesthetic awareness. School choral music instruction is interactive in nature and has at its core the study and performance of quality music from a wide variety of styles, cultures and historical periods.

Success and achievement in music education demands engagement in the four creative practices of imagination, investigation, construction and reflection in multiple contexts which transfers to all aspects of learning and life in the 21st century. The combination of sequential skill development, conceptual understanding and the application of skills and concepts results in opportunities for our students that are uniquely experienced through their music education.
Creating
Responding
Darien Choral Music Curriculum
Grades 6-12

Performing
Assessment

Music is an art form based on creating, performing and responding where one’s enjoyment increases exponentially with one’s understanding.


Music offers unique learning opportunities to explore individual creativity, artistic expression and a more in-depth understanding of past and present cultures in our diverse world community.


A comprehensive music education will enable students to make more informed aesthetic choices, develop their musical abilities through self-discipline and focus and will provide a vehicle to increase their confidence in learning across the entire curriculum.


We believe that all students should have a comprehensive, balanced, sequential curriculum of in-school instruction in music education in accordance with national, state and local standards, and that an education in music and the arts will develop the life-long learning abilities and aesthetic skills necessary to improve the quality of life in a more cultured, educated society.

STATEMENT OF PHILOSOPHY
Each year, the Darien Music Department in grades K-12, devotes Professional Development time and resources to learning more about a specified historical period, composer, artistic work or aspect of music history in order to promote a more focused, in-depth study of a relevant topic for the entire Darien teaching and learning community.

Our ultimate goal is that all of the students in the Darien Public Schools (K-12) will engage in meaningful musical activities that lead toward a deeper understanding of our culture and history.

Collaborations with the organizations outside of the school district also provide additional opportunities for live musical performances and cultural enrichment programs in the schools to support this curricular focus theme. This annual project offers opportunities that encourage interdisciplinary connections, create meaningful, life-long learning experiences and provide a platform for real-world connections for our students and teachers.

Past Curricular Focus Themes:

2004 - 2005 Duke Ellington
2005 - 2006 The Music of Latin America
2006 - 2007 Music in the Media
2007 - 2008 Patriotic Music
2008 - 2009 The Music of George Gershwin
2009 - 2010 Music from East Asia
2010 - 2011 The History of Rock
2011 - 2012 Bach to the Future
2012 - 2013 American Folk Music
2013 - 2014 The History of the Broadway Musical
2014 - 2015 Music of the Silver Screen: The History of Movie Music

Music Department Curricular Focus Theme Category Cycle

YEAR A: RENAISSANCE, BAROQUE, PATRIOTIC, AMERICAN COMPOSERS
YEAR B: CLASSICAL, FOLK, JAZZ, BLUES, IMPROVISED MUSIC
YEAR C: ROMANTIC, BROADWAY, MULTICULTURAL
YEAR D: CONTEMPORARY, POPULAR, PROGRAM/FILM MUSIC (NEW COMPOSERS)

This rotating cycle represents a focus area of content and repertoire that students in grades K-12 will study in each year that they study music in the Darien Public Schools. The students will annually be engaged in one in-depth unit or topic built around a selected composition, composer, culture or historical period or musically significant theme as determined by the K-12 Music teachers.
Choral Music Program Description
The Choral Music program in grades 6-12 is based on curricular Chorus offerings that are selected as electives by the students. A music elective is required at the Middle School level and chorus is one of four music elective options that students may choose. The study of music and choral music at the high school level is strictly optional, although one credit in the Fine or Practical Arts is required for graduation.

Although vocal music is an integral part of the Elementary General Music Curriculum, the official elementary school chorus is an ensemble that is open to all interested fourth and fifth grade students and meets one day per week before normal school hours. Being a non-curricular offering, there is no official curriculum for the Elementary School choruses, but it is understood that the elementary choral experience, as well as elementary general music, is preparing students for participation in our Middle School choral ensembles.

Chorus on the Middle School level (6-8) consists of grade level choruses that meet as scheduled classes two times per week. (two 41-minute classes) Each chorus is grouped into two or three smaller sections for the purposes of scheduling and they are then combined into one grade level chorus for performances. The Camerata Singers is an auditioned, mixed ensemble that meets before regularly scheduled school hours and performs a more challenging repertoire of literature. All middle school ensembles have a minimum expectation of two formal public concerts each year.

The study of Choral Music at the high school level (9-12) is designed to provide interested students with opportunities to continue to develop their vocal skills and musicianship. Concert Choir meets daily and is open to all students in grades 9-12. The Honors Chamber Choir (Tudor Singers) is an auditioned ensemble, open to students in grades 10-12 by audition, that challenges students to perform higher level vocal literature. Both ensembles meet during the school day and may include some evening rehearsals and performances. The Tudor Singers (Chamber Choir) also meets one evening rehearsal per week in order to prepare for their increased public performances. Small ensemble experience is an expectation of the choral curriculum. A vocal class is offered as an independent study course for ensemble members who are interested in improving their vocal technique. All high school ensembles have a minimum expectation of 3-4 formal public concerts per school year.


Annual Curricular Focus Theme

• How does the study of music provide essential ways to understand and express life experiences?
• How does the study of music develop deeper understandings of past and present cultures and prepare students for active participation in creating culture of the present and future?
• How does music develop imagination and creativity and help students to develop the full range of their abilities?
• How does music enable students to make informed aesthetic choices and prepare them for enjoyable recreation and leisure time?
• How does participation in music develop self-discipline and focus and develop the capacity to refine work and aspire to high quality standards?


Performing
• How do musicians prepare for performances? What skills are required to accurately perform choral music?
• How do performers select repertoire?
• How do performers interpret musical works?
• When is a musical selection judged ready to present? How does context and presentation influence audience response?

Creating
• How do musicians improve the quality of their creative work?
• How do musicians make creative decisions?
• When is a creative work ready to share?

Responding
• How do we judge the quality of musical works and performances?
• How does musical understanding inform one’s overall choice of music to experience or perform?

Connecting
• How do musicians make meaningful connections to creating, performing and responding to music?
• How do the other arts, other disciplines, contexts and daily life inform creating, performing and responding to music?



ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS
Enduring Understanding: Musicians make, evaluate and refine their work through openness to new ideas and through feedback.

Essential Question: How do musicians improve the quality of their creative work?

Process Component(s): Imagine, Plan, Make, Evaluate, Refine, Explore, Express, Present

Students will:
PERFORMING I
Enduring Understanding: Musicians prepare for performances by methodically rehearsing, evaluating and refining technical skills over time through planned practice, feedback, reflection and collaboration.
Essential Questions: How do musicians prepare for performances? What skills are required to accurately perform instrumental music? How do musicians improve the quality of their performance?
Process Component(s): Rehearse, Evaluate, Refine, Interpret


Enduring Understanding:
The personal evaluation of musical works and performances are informed by analysis, interpretation, and established criteria.

Essential Question:
How do we describe and judge the quality of musical works and performances?

Process Component(s):
Listen, Analyze, Identify, Explain, Describe, Compare/Contrast, Interpret, Evaluate

Students will:



DPS Music http://blogs.darienps.org/music
Program Overview
Connections with Common Core State Standards in English/Language Arts and Mathematics, high order thinking, and 21st Century Skills are embedded throughout the music performance standards, as they play an essential role in carrying out the three Artistic Processes of Creating, Performing and Responding. Some connections would be:

• Key Common Core verbs such as compare, contrast, analyze, interpret, create and the Tier 3 content specific, music vocabulary that is essential to demonstrating an understanding of music.
• Explicit references to social, cultural and historical context and conveying ideas and meaning using complex text. Music literacy is considered complex text by Common Core definition.
• Opportunities for students to demonstrate 21st century skills such as collaboration, critical thinking, analyzing, evaluating, explaining and being involved in the creative process through the study of music.

The creative practices of investigation and reflection are connected to all ten of the Anchor Standards for Reading, and all four skills – imagination, investigation, construction and reflection, were strongly represented in the Anchor Standards for Writing. Additionally, all four creative practices were found to be aligned with each of the Standards for Mathematical Practice. 

Related Goals and Standards
Performing
• Musicians prepare for performances by methodically rehearsing, evaluating and refining technical skills to assure accurate interpretations.
• Performers make interpretative decisions based on their understanding of the musical work and the creator’s intent.
• Musicians judge performances based on criteria that vary across time, place and cultures. The context and how a work is presented influence the audience response.
• To express their musical ideas, musicians analyze, evaluate and refine their performance over time through planned practice, feedback, reflection and collaboration.
• Performers knowledge of musical works, understanding of their own abilities and the context for a performance influence the selection of repertoire.

Creating
• Musician’s creative choices are influenced by their personal experiences, context and expressive intent.
• Musicians make, evaluate and refine their own work through openness to new ideas and through feedback from multiple sources.
• A musician’s presentation of creative work is the culmination of a process of creation and communication.

Responding
• An individual’s selection of musical works to perform or experience is influenced by their interests, experiences, understandings and purposes.
• The personal evaluation of musical works and performances are informed by analysis, interpretation and established criteria.

Connecting
• Musicians connect their personal interests, experiences, ideas and knowledge to creating, performing and responding to music.
• Understanding connections to varied contexts and daily life enhances a musician’s ability to create, perform and respond to music.


SUMMARY OF
ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
In order to have a meaningful learning experience in music, students music be consistently actively engaged in the following learning behaviors:

• Creating
• Performing
• Responding
• Connecting
• Decoding
• Selecting
• Composing
• Improvising
• Analyzing
• Evaluating
• Interpreting
• Exploring
• Expressing
• Comparing
• Imagining
• Reflecting
• Singing
• Listening
• Notating
• Memorizing
• Identifying
• Modeling
• Imitating
• Writing
• Reading
• Describing
• Choosing
• Working independently and collaboratively










PROCESS COMPONENTS






BOARD OF EDUCATION



Mrs. Elizabeth A. Hagerty-Ross – Chair
Mr. Michael A. Harman – Vice Chair
Mrs. Sarah Schneider Zuro – Secretary
Mrs. Kathrine G. Stein
Mr. David B. Martens
Mrs. Christa S. McNamara
Mrs. Callie A. Sullivan
Mr. David P. Dineen
Mr. Michael J. Burke







CURRICULUM GUIDE AUTHORS



Mr. Christopher Andrade, Choral Director, Darien High School
Mr. Thomas O’Donnell, Choral Teacher, Middlesex Middle School
Mrs. Kimberly Sadler, Choral Teacher, Middlesex Middle School
Mr. Richard D. Sadlon, Director of Music
Overview
Grade level appropriate formative and summative assessments are an expectation for each of the Creating, Performing and Responding performance standards throughout this curriculum. A series of well-designed instructional activities typically addresses multiple areas of the curriculum and makes connections to more than one of the artistic processes (creating, performing, responding and connecting). An example would be that students are expected to create and perform their original compositions or improvisations and both aspects would be addressed and assessed.
Opportunities for assessment grow naturally out of well-designed sequences of instruction and are embedded in each lesson, rather than occurring as add-ons after a series of lessons. Assessments in music education should be a process of measuring what students have learned as demonstrated by an authentic, actual demonstration of their understanding through performance and then providing meaningful feedback to them so that students engage in an ongoing process of evaluating, reflecting, refining and improving their own musical skills.
All Choral Music students throughout the district are required to take district-wide common assessments that measure their understanding of essential knowledge and skills. These assessments are periodically reviewed and refined by the teachers after an analysis of student performance on each item and our ongoing review of expectations at each grade level. The current version of these common grade level assessments have been included in this document.



In grade 6-12 students receive a letter grade based on their accomplishments of grade level curricular expectations in Performing, Creating and Responding as established by the Music Department. Periodic formative assessments are given to measure student progress in all areas of instruction.

SmartMusic is an essential web-based tool that used for performance assessment of students on all grade levels. The program allows students to perform their assignments and receive instant feedback and a score that measure correct notes and rhythms. The student score and a recorded sample of the performance is then submitted to an electronic teacher grade book for further review and feedback. Many of the performance assignments have a pre-recorded accompaniment giving the students a context for their individual part and the program enables the students to adjust the tempo so that they can learn music at their own pace and performance level. Students can also submit sample of improvisation with this program and teachers, with the use of Finale software can create and design their own performance assignments and exercises. SmartMusic is linked to our beginning and intermediate method books, Standard of Excellence for Band and Essential Elements for Strings.
Many students have personal subscriptions to this program and we have multiple work stations located in the schools to accommodate student access and demand. A link to a more comprehensive explanation and demonstration of this program has been attached to this document.
General Information
SmartMusic
Grading Guidelines
• Performance: Singing, demonstrating knowledge and application of vocal concepts
• Performance: Reading, decoding and interpreting musical notation
• Creating: Composing and improvising assignments and projects
• Responding: Analyzing and evaluating musical examples with specified grade level musical terminology and criteria.
• Student self-assessment, reflection and peer assessment of all artistic processes.

Types of Assessments
http://www.smartmusic.com
Melody: (pitch, theme, conjunct, disjunct, intervals, strong/weak)
Harmony: (chord, progression, consonance, dissonance, key, tonality, atonality)
Rhythm: (beat, meter, tempo, syncopation)
Form: (binary, ternary, strophic, rondo, through-composed)
Texture: (monophonic, homophonic, polyphonic, imitation, counterpoint)
Dynamics: (pianissimo – fortissimo, crescendo, decrescendo, dynamic contour)
Tone color: (register, range, instrumentation
The Elements of Music
A cappella - One or more vocalists performing without an accompaniment.
Accelerando - A symbol used in musical notation indicating to gradually quicken tempo.
Accessible - Music that is easy to listen to and understand.
Adagio - A tempo having slow movement; restful at ease.
Allegro - A direction to play lively and fast.
Atonal - Music that is written and performed without regard to any specific key.
Baroque - Time in music history ranging from the middle of the 16th to the middle of the 17th centuries. Characterized by emotional, flowery music; written in strict form.
Beat - The unit of musical rhythm.
Cadence - A sequence of chords that brings an end to a phrase, either in the middle or the end of a composition.
Cadenza - Initially an improvised cadence by a soloist; later becoming an elaborate and written out passage in an aria or concerto, featuring the skills of an instrumentalist or vocalist.
Cadenza - Originally an improvised cadence by a soloist. Later it became a written out passage to display performance skills of an instrumentalist or performer.
Canon - A musical form where the melody or tune is imitated by individual parts at regular intervals. The individual parts may enter at different measures and pitches. The tune may also be played at different speeds, backwards, or inverted.
Cantabile - A style of singing which is characterized by the easy and flowing tone of the composition.
Cantata - Music written for chorus and orchestra. Most often religious in nature.
Capriccio - A quick, improvisational, spirited piece of music.
Carol - A song or hymn celebrating Christmas.
Castrato - Male singers who were castrated to preserve their alto and soprano vocal range.
Cavatina - A short and simple melody performed by a soloist that is part of a larger piece.
Chamber music - Written for 2 to 10 solo parts featuring one instrument to a part. Each part bears the same importance.
Chant - Singing in unison, texts in a free rhythm. Similar to the rhythm of speech.
Choir - Group of singers in a chorus.
Chorale - A hymn sung by the choir and congregation often in unison.
Chord - 3 or 4 notes played simultaneously in harmony.
Chord progression - A string of chords played in succession.
Chorus - A group singing in unison.
Chromatic scale - Includes all twelve notes of an octave.
Classical - The period of music history which dates from the mid 1700’s to mid 1800’s. The music was spare and emotionally reserved, especially when compared to Romantic and Boroque music.

Classicism - The period of music history which dates from the mid 1800’s and lasted about sixty years. There was a strong regard for order and balance.
Clavier - The keyboard of a stringed instrument.
Clef - In sheet music, a symbol at the beginning of the staff defining the pitch of the notes found in that particular staff.
Coda - Closing section of a movement.
Concert master - The first violin in an orchestra.
Concerto - A composition written for a solo instrument. The soloist plays the melody while the orchestra plays the accompaniment.
Conductor - One who directs a group of performers. The conductor indicates the tempo, phrasing, dynamics, and style by gestures and facial expressions.
Consonance - Groups of tones that are harmonious when sounded together as in a chord.
Contralto - Lowest female singing voice.
Counterpoint - Two or three melodic lines played at the same time.
Courante - A piece of music written in triple time. Also an old French dance.
Da Capo - In sheet music, an instruction to repeat the beginning of the piece before stopping on the final chord.
Deceptive cadence - A chord progression that seems to lead to resolving itself on the final chord; but does not.
Development - Where the musical themes and melodies are developed, written in sonata form.
Dissonance - Harsh, discordant, and lack of harmony. Also a chord that sounds incomplete until it resolves itself on a harmonious chord.
Drone - Dull, monotonous tone such as a humming or buzzing sound. Also a bass note held under a melody.
Duet - A piece of music written for two vocalists or instrumentalists.
Dynamics - Pertaining to the loudness or softness of a musical composition. Also the symbols in sheet music indicating volume.
Elegy - An instrumental lament with praise for the dead.
Encore - A piece of music played at the end of a recital responding to the audiences enthusiastic reaction to the performance, shown by continuous applause.
Energico - A symbol in sheet music a direction to play energetically.
Enharmonic Interval - Two notes that differ in name only. The notes occupy the same position. For example: C sharp and D flat.
Ensemble - The performance of either all instruments of an orchestra or voices in a chorus.
Espressivo - A direction to play expressively.
Etude - A musical composition written solely to improve technique. Often performed for artistic interest.
Exposition - The first section of a movement written in sonata form, introducing the melodies and themes.
Expressionism - Atonal and violent style used as a means of evoking heightened emotions and states of mind.

Falsetto - A style of male singing where by partial use of the vocal chords, the voice is able to reach the pitch of a female.
Fermata - To hold a tone or rest held beyond the written value at the discretion of the performer.
Fifth - The interval between two notes. Three whole tones and one semitone make up the distance between the two notes.
Finale - Movement or passage that concludes the musical composition.
Flat - A symbol indicating that the note is to be diminished by one semitone.
Form - The structure of a piece of music.
Forte - A symbol indicating to play loud.
Fourth - The interval between two notes. Two whole tones and one semitone make up the distance between the two notes.
Fugue - A composition written for three to six voices. Beginning with the exposition, each voice enters at different times, creating counterpoint with one another.
Galliard - Music written for a lively French dance for two performers written in triple time.
Gavotte - A 17th century dance written in Quadruple time, always beginning on the third beat of the measure.
Glee - Vocal composition written for three or more solo parts, usually without instrumental accompaniment.
Glissando - Sliding between two notes.
Grandioso - Word to indicate that the movement or entire composition is to be played grandly.
Grave - Word to indicate the movement or entire composition is to be played very slow and serious.
Grazioso - Word to indicate the movement or entire composition is to be played gracefully.
Gregorian Chant - Singing or chanting in unison without strict rhythm. Collected during the Reign of Pope Gregory VIII for psalms and other other parts of the church service.
Harmony - Pleasing combination of two or three tones played together in the background while a melody is being played. Harmony also refers to the study of chord progressions.
Homophony - Music written to be sung or played in unison.
Hymn - A song of praise and glorification. Most often to honor God.
Impromptu - A short piano piece, often improvisational and intimate in character.
Instrumentation - Arrangement of music for a combined number of instruments.
Interlude - Piece of instrumental music played between scenes in a play or opera.
Intermezzo - Short movement or interlude connecting the main parts of the composition.
Interpretation - The expression the performer brings when playing his instrument.
Interval - The distance in pitch between two notes.
Intonation - The manner in which tones are produced with regard to pitch.

Introduction - The opening section of a piece of music or movement.
Key - System of notes or tones based on and named after the key note.
Key signature - The flats and sharps at the beginning of each staff line indicating the key of music the piece is to be played.
Klangfarbenmelodie - The technique of altering the tone color of a single note or musical line by changing from one instrument to another in the middle of a note or line.
Leading note - The seventh note of the scale where there is a strong desire to resolve on the tonic.
Legato - Word to indicate that the movement or entire composition is to be played smoothly.
Leitmotif - A musical theme given to a particular idea or main character of an opera.
Libretto - A book of text containing the words of an opera.
Ligature - Curved line connecting notes to be sung or played as a phrase.
Madrigal - A contrapuntal song written for at least three voices, usually without accompaniment.
Maestro - Refers to any great composer, conductor, or teacher of music.
Major - One of the two modes of the tonal system. Music written in major keys have a positive affirming character.
March - A form of music written for marching in two-step time. Originally the march was used for military processions.
Measure - The unit of measure where the beats on the lines of the staff are divided up into two, three, four beats to a measure.
Medley - Often used in overtures, a composition that uses passages from other movements of the composition in its entirety.
Mezzo - The voice between soprano and alto. Also, in sheet music, a direction for the tempo to be played at medium speed.
Minor - One of the two modes of the tonal system. The minor mode can be identified by the dark, melancholic mood.
Minuet - Slow and stately dance music written in triple time.
Modes - Either of the two octave arrangements in modern music. The modes are either major or minor.
Modulation - To shift to another key.
Monotone - Repetition of a single tone.
Motif - Primary theme or subject that is developed.
Movement - A separate section of a larger composition.
Musette - A Boroque dance with a drone-bass.
Musicology - The study of forms, history, science, and methods of music.
Natural - A symbol in sheet music that returns a note to its original pitch after it has been augmented or diminished.
Neoclassical - Movement in music where the characteristics are crisp and direct.
Nocturne - A musical composition that has a romantic or dreamy character with nocturnal associations.

Nonet - A composition written for nine instruments.
Notation - First developed in the 8th century, methods of writing music.
Obbligato - An extended solo, often accompanying the vocal part of an aria.
Octave - Eight full tones above the key note where the scale begins and ends.
Octet - A composition written for eight instruments.
Opera - A drama where the words are sung instead of spoken.
Operetta - A short light musical drama.
Opus - Convenient method of numbering a composer’s works where a number follows the word “opus”. For example, Opus 28, No. 4.
Oratorio - An extended cantata on a sacred subject.
Orchestra - A large group of instrumentalists playing together.
Orchestration - Arranging a piece of music for an orchestra. Also, the study of music.
Ornaments - Tones used to embellish the principal melodic tone.
Ostinato - A repeated phrase.
Overture - Introduction to an opera or other large musical work.
Parody - A composition based on previous work. A common technique used in Medieval and Renaissance music.
Part - A line in a contrapuntal work performed by an individual voice or instrument.
Partial - A harmonic given off by a note when it is played.
Partita - Suite of Baroque dances.
Pastoral - A composition whose style is simple and idyllic; suggestive of rural scenes.
Pentatonic Scale - A musical scale having five notes. For example: the five black keys of a keyboard make up a pentatonic scale.
Phrase - A single line of music played or sung. A musical sentence.
Piano - An instruction in sheet music to play softly. Abbreviated by a “p”.
Pitch - The frequency of a note determining how high or low it sounds.
Pizzicato - String instruments that are picked instead of bowed.
Polyphony - Combining a number of individual but harmonizing melodies. Also known as counterpoint.
Polytonality - Combination of two or more keys being played at the same time.
Portamento - A mild glissando between two notes for an expressive effect.
Prelude - A short piece originally preceded by a more substantial work, also an orchestral introduction to opera, however not lengthy enough to be considered an overture.
Presto - A direction in sheet music indicating the tempo is to be very fast.
Progression - The movement of chords in succession.
Quadrille - A 19th century square dance written for 4 couples.
Quartet - A set of four musicians who perform a composition written for four parts.

Quintet - A set of five musicians who perform a composition written for five parts.
Recapitulation - A reprise.
Recital - A solo concert with or without accompaniment.
Recitative - A form of writing for vocals that is close to the manner of speech and is rhythmically free.
Reed - The piece of cane in wind instruments. The players cause vibrations by blowing through it in order to produce sound.
Refrain - A repeating phrase that is played at the end of each verse in the song.
Register - A portion of the range of the instrument or voice.
Relative major and minor - The major and minor keys that share the same notes in that key. For example: A minor shares the same note as C major.
Relative pitch - Ability to determine the pitch of a note as it relates to the notes that precede and follow it.
Renaissance - A period in history dating from the 14th to 16th centuries. This period signified the rebirth of music, art, and literature.
Reprise - To repeat a previous part of a composition generally after other music has been played.
Requiem - A dirge, hymn, or musical service for the repose of the dead.
Resonance - When several strings are tuned to harmonically related pitches, all strings vibrate when only one of the strings is struck.
Rhythm - The element of music pertaining to time, played as a grouping of notes into accented and unaccented beats.
Ricercar - Elaborate polyphonic composition of the Boroque and Renaissance periods.
Rigaudon - A quick 20th century dance written in double time.
Rococo - A musical style characterized as excessive, ornamental, and trivial.
Romantic - A period in history during the 18th and early 19th centuries where the focus shifted from the neoclassical style to an emotional, expressive, and imaginative style.
Rondo - A musical form where the principal theme is repeated several times. The rondo was often used for the final movements of classical sonata form works.
Root - The principal note of a triad.
Round - A canon where the melody is sung in two or more voices. After the first voice begins, the next voice starts singing after a couple of measures are played in the preceding voice. All parts repeat continuously.
Rubato - An important characteristic of the Romantic period. It is a style where the strict tempo is temporarily abandoned for a more emotional tone.
Scale - Successive notes of a key or mode either ascending or descending.
Scherzo - Pertaining to the sonata form, a fast movement in triple time.
Scordatura - The retuning of a stringed instrument in order to play notes below the ordinary range of the instrument or to produce an usual tone color.
Septet - A set of seven musicians who perform a composition written for seven parts.

Sequence - A successive transposition and repetition of a phrase at different pitches.
Serenade - A lighthearted piece, written in several movements, usually as background music for a social function.
Sextet - A set of six musicians who perform a composition written for six parts.
Sharp - A symbol indicating the note is to be raised by one semitone.
Slide - A glissando or portamento. Also refers to the moving part of a trombone.
Slur - A curve over notes to indicate that a phrase is to be played legato.
Sonata -
Music of a particular form consisting of four movements. Each of the movements differ in tempo, rhythm, and melody; but are held together by subject and style.
Sonata form - A complex piece of music. Usually the first movement of the piece serving as the exposition, a development, or recapitulation.
Sonatina - A short or brief sonata.
Song cycle - A sequence of songs, perhaps on a single theme, or with texts by one poet, or having continuos narrative.
Soprano - The highest female voice.
Staccato - Short detached notes, as opposed to legato.
Staff - Made up of five horizontal parallel lines and the spaces between them on which musical notation is written.
Stretto - Pertaining to the fugue, the overlapping of the same theme or motif by two or more voices a few beats apart.
String Quartet - A group of 4 instruments, two violins, a viola, and cello.
Suite - A loose collection of instrumental compositions.
Symphony - Three to four movement orchestral piece, generally in sonata form.
System - A combination of two or more staves on which all the notes are vertically aligned and performed simultaneously in differing registers and instruments.
Tablature - A system of notation for stringed instruments. The notes are indicated by the finger positions.
Temperament - Refers to the tuning of an instrument.
Tempo - Indicating speed.
Tessitura - The range of an instrumental or a vocal part.
Theme - A melodic or, sometimes a harmonic idea presented in a musical form.
Timbre - Tone color, quality of sound that distinguishes one verse or instrument to another. It is determined by the harmonies of sound.
Time Signature - A numeric symbol in sheet music determining the number of beats to a measure.
Tonal - Pertains to tone or tones.
Tonality - The tonal characteristics determined by the relationship of the notes to the tone.
Tone - The intonation, pitch, and modulation of a composition expressing the meaning, feeling, or attitude of the music.

Tone less - Unmusical, without tone.
Tonic - The first tone of a scale also known as a keynote.
Treble - The playing or singing the upper half of the vocal range. Also the highest voice in choral singing.
Tremolo - Quick repetition of the same note or the rapid alternation between two notes.
Triad - Three note chords consisting of a root, third, and fifth.
Trill - Rapid alternation between notes that are a half tone or whole tone apart.
Trio - A composition written for three voices and instruments performed by three
persons.
Triple time - Time signature with three beats to the measure.
Triplet - Three notes played in the same amount of time as one or two beats.
Tritone - A chord comprised of three whole tones resulting in an augmented fourth or diminished fifth.
Tune - A rhythmic succession of musical tones, a melody for instruments and voices.
Tuning - The raising and lowering a pitch of an instrument to produce the correct tone of a note.
Tutti - Passage for the entire ensemble or orchestra without a soloist.
Twelve-tone music - Music composed such that each note is used the same number of times.
Unison - Two or more voices or instruments playing the same note simultaneously.
Verismo - A form of Italian opera beginning at the end of the 19th century. The setting is contemporary to the composer’s own time, and the characters are modeled after every day life.
Vibrato - Creating variation pitch in a note by quickly alternating between notes.
Virtuoso - A person with notable technical skill in the performance of music.
Vivace - Direction to performer to play a composition in a brisk, lively, and spirited manner.
Voice - One of two or more parts in polyphonic music. Voice refers to instrumental parts as well as the singing voice.
Waltz - A dance written in triple time, where the accent falls on the first beat of each measure.
Whole note - A whole note is equal to 2 half notes, 4 quarter notes, 8 eighth notes, etc.
Whole-tone scale - A scale consisting of only whole-tone notes. Such a scale consists of only 6 notes.

Glossary of Musical Terms
Choral Music Common Assessments
The DarienYoung Composers Concert

The Music Department of the Darien Public Schools will be sponsoring our fourteenth annual Darien Young Composers Concert on April 7, 2014 at 6:30 for grades K-5 and 7:30 PM for students in grades 6-12 in the Darien High School auditorium. This program is open to all students currently enrolled in the Darien Public Schools.Please read the guidelines below and speak to your school Music teacher about what is required. We are all looking forward to hearing your music and featuring it on this special concert.

Good Luck!!
Young Composers Program
http://blogs.darienps.org/music/young-composers-program/
6th
7th
8th
DHS


The Darien Public Schools Music Department’s Choral Curriculum provides a sequential program of study for students in grades 6-12 who elect to study and participate in the Choral Music program. This 2015 revision has been aligned with National Core Arts Standards and contains alignments and common language with the Common Core State Standards.

Upon graduation from the Darien Public Schools the students who study choral music should be able to demonstrate skills, knowledge and conceptual understanding in each of the following artistic processes:

• Performing:
Realizing artistic ideas and work through interpretation and presentation. Performing an existing work through a process that calls upon the interpretive or re-creative skills of the student.

• Creating:
Conceiving and developing new artistic ideas and work. Improvising and composing original music.

• Responding:
Interacting with and reflecting on artistic musical works and performances to develop and enhance understanding. To engage a student in critical listening of music utilizing content specific terminology.

• Connecting:
Relating artistic ideas and works with societal, cultural and historical context to deepen understanding. This process is inherent and implied in all of the musical Artistic Processes.

Artistic literacy is the knowledge and understanding required to participate authentically in the arts. Fluency in the language of the arts is the ability to create, perform, present, respond and connect through symbolic and metaphoric forms that are unique to the arts. An artistically literate person has the ability to transfer arts knowledge, skills, experiences and capacities to other subjects, settings and contexts to promote and enhance lifelong learning.


Program Goals
High School Accomplished
Grades 6 & 7
Grade 8
Compare and contrast complete musical works and explain how the 7 elements of music interact to create an effective artistic composition using musical terminology.
Compare and contrast complete musical works and explain how the 7 elements of music interact to create an effective artistic composition using musical terminology.
Compare and contrast musical examples and describe how 3-4 elements of music are used to create musical interest and effectiveness using musical terminology.
Compare and contrast musical examples and describe how 5 elements of music are used to create musical interest and effectiveness using musical terminology.
High School Advanced
Grade 6
Grade 7
Grade 8
High School
Create, evaluate, and refine a simple 4-8 measure composition and improvisation within grade level specific criteria and use feedback from others to improve craftsmanship over time.
Create, evaluate, and refine an 8-12 measure composition and improvisation within grade level specific criteria and use feedback from others to improve craftsmanship over time.
Create, evaluate, and refine an 8-12 measure composition and improvisation within grade level specific criteria and use feedback from others to improve craftsmanship over time.
Accomplished and Advanced
Create, evaluate and refine a 12 -24 measure composition and improvisation within specified guidelines. Use self-generated feedback and other external feedback to evaluate, refine and improve aspects of the original music. Explain the process of creating this work over time.
Darien Public Schools
(Improvising and Composing)
PERFORMING II

Enduring Understanding: Performers knowledge of musical works, understanding of their own abilities, and the context for a performance influence the selection of repertoire.

Essential Question(s): How do performers select repertoire for various purposes? When is a musical selection judged ready to present? How do context and the manner in which the musical work is presented influence audience response?

Process Component(s): Select, Analyze, Refine, Rehearse, Describe, Present

Grade 7
Grade 8
High School Advanced
High School Accomplished
Grade 6
Rehearse, evaluate and refine their performance, using teacher/peer feedback (i.e. expressiveness) and class-created criteria (i.e. rhythm/pitch accuracy, intonation, expressive qualities, vocal technique) to improve over time.
Rehearse, evaluate and refine their solo and/or ensemble performance, using teacher/peer feedback (i.e. technical accuracy) and class-created criteria to improve over time.
Rehearse, evaluate and refine their solo and ensemble performance(s) using teacher/peer feedback, class-created criteria and self-evaluation to improve over time.
Rehearse, evaluate and refine ensemble performances:

a. Use music vocabulary accurately and appropriately, apply appropriate criteria to evaluate the accuracy, expressiveness, and effectiveness of ensemble performances.

b. Use music vocabulary accurately and appropriately, identify and apply appropriate strategies to overcome ensemble performance challenges to implementing interpretation.

c. Collaborate and apply feedback in the refinement of ensemble performance.

Rehearse, evaluate and refine personal and ensemble performances.

a. Use music vocabulary accurately and appropriately, independently develop and apply appropriate criteria to evaluate the accuracy, expressiveness, and effectiveness of personal and ensemble performance.

b. Independently develop and apply appropriate strategies to overcome personal and ensemble performance challenges to implementing interpretation.

c. Apply feedback from multiple and varied sources in the refinement of personal and ensemble performance.

Grade 7
Grade 8
High School Advanced
High School Accomplished
Grade 6
Perform a selected work for peers; demonstrate an interpretation of the creators’ intent; reflect on expressiveness, technical accuracy (i.e. tempo, dynamics, unity/variety), and whether the selection was appropriate for the audience and context.
Perform a selected work for peers; demonstrate appropriate stage presence, staging for the performance and interpretation of the creators’ intent; reflect on expressiveness, technical accuracy (i.e. elements of music, style, cultural context), whether the selection was appropriate for the audience and context, and the effect that staging had on the reception of the performance.
Perform a selected work for peers; demonstrate appropriate stage presence, staging for the performance and interpretation of the creators’ intent; reflect on expressiveness, technical accuracy (i.e. articulation, tension/release, historical context), whether the selection was appropriate for the audience and context, and the effect that staging had on the reception of the performance.
Explain and cite criteria used when selecting and presenting music:

a. Explain* what in the music was of personal interest.

b. Collaboratively explain* technical challenges in relationship to the performer’s/ensemble’s skill level.

c. Collaboratively explain* expressive challenges in relation to the performer/ensemble skill level.

d. Explain* and demonstrate how the selection of music fits the context.

* Use music vocabulary accurately and appropriately

Select musical work(s) to present based on interest, knowledge, ability and context

a. Independently create and apply criteria* for selecting musical works to perform based on personal and ensemble interest.

b. Independently create and apply criteria* for evaluating technical challenges in relationship to performer/ensemble skill level.

c. Independently create and apply criteria* for evaluating expressive challenges for the individual and the ensemble.

d. Independently create and apply criteria* for selecting music for performance based on context.

* Use music vocabulary accurately and appropriately

By the end of each grade level students will be able to:
Grade 6
1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
Students will:

a. Sing independently, demonstrating appropriate posture, breath control, intonation and tone.

b. Demonstrate correct choral vowels and consonants appropriate to literature performed.

c. Demonstrate part independence within the ensemble in the context of 2-part music (harmony and counterpoint).

d. Perform melodies and rhythms accurately at a steady tempo.

e. Perform music expressively, using appropriate phrasing, articulation and dynamics.

f. Identify and respond to basic conducting beats and gestures including: preparatory beats, releases, tempo changes, entrance cues, dynamics and other expressive gestures.

g. Perform music of a variety of styles and cultures.

h. Perform utilizing appropriate balance, blend and timbre to achieve a refined ensemble sound.

i. Perform music in a variety of meters including 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2 and 6/8.

j. Demonstrate appropriate care of the voice.

2. Reading and notating music
Students will:

a. Read and be able to perform the following note values and corresponding rests: whole, half, quarter, eighth, dotted half, dotted quarter, dotted
eighth and sixteenth notes in the following meters: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2 and 6/8.

b. Identify all pitches within the treble clef and appropriate range for his/her voice part.

c. Identify and describe time signatures by the number of beats per measure and the unit of beat including: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2 and 6/8.

d. Interpret and count grade level appropriate rhythms orally using the numerical counting system. Use syllabic counting systems in conjunction
with numbers when appropriate.

e. Identify the symbols for #, b, and natural

f. Identify and perform the following: dynamic markings (pp-ff and crescendo, decrescendo and diminuendo)

g. Identify and interpret the articulation markings: accent, legato and staccato.

h. Interpret and perform given tempo markings and alterations as notated in appropriate music selections including allegro and ritardando.

i. Identify, interpret, and perform directions given in the music including: fermatas, repeats, 1st and 2nd endings, D.C. and D.S. indications, codas and
multiple measure rests.

j. Sight-read grade level melodies in the appropriate voice range and clef.


Grade 7

1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
Students will:

a. Sing independently, demonstrating appropriate posture, breath control, intonation and tone.

b. Demonstrate correct choral vowels and consonants appropriate to literature performed.

c. Demonstrate part independence within the ensemble in the context of 2-part music (harmony and counterpoint).

d. Perform melodies and rhythms accurately at a steady tempo.

e. Perform music expressively, using appropriate phrasing, articulation and dynamics.

f. Identify and respond to basic conducting beats and gestures including: preparatory beats, releases, tempo changes, entrance cues, dynamics and other expressive gestures.

g. Perform music of a variety of styles and cultures.

h. Perform utilizing appropriate balance, blend and timbre to achieve a refined ensemble sound.

i. Perform music in a variety of meters including 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2 and 6/8.

j. Demonstrate appropriate care of the voice.


2. Reading and notating music
Students will:

a. Read and be able to perform the following note values and corresponding rests: whole, half, quarter, eighth, dotted half, dotted quarter, dotted eighth, eighth note triplets and
sixteenth notes in the following meters: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2, 3/8 and 6/8.

b. Identify all pitches within the treble clef and appropriate range for his/her voice part.

c. Identify and describe time signatures by the number of beats per measure and the unit of beat including: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2, 3/8 and 6/8.

d. Interpret and count grade level appropriate rhythms orally using the numerical counting system. Use syllabic counting systems in conjunction with numbers when
appropriate.

e. Identify the symbols for #, b, and natural.

f. Identify and perform the following: dynamic markings (pp-ff and crescendo, molto crescendo, decrescendo and diminuendo)

g . Identify the articulation markings: accent, legato, staccato and marcato.

h. Interpret and perform given tempo markings and alterations as notated in appropriate music selections including molto ritardando, presto, and accelerando.

i. Identify, interpret, and perform directions given in the music including: fermatas, repeats, 1st and 2nd endings, D.C. and D.S. indications, codas and multiple measure rests.

j. Sight-read grade level melodies in the appropriate voice range and clef.

Grade 8
1. Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music
Students will:

a. Sing independently, demonstrating appropriate posture, breath control, intonation and tone.

b. Demonstrate correct choral vowels and consonants appropriate to literature performed.

c. Demonstrate part independence within the ensemble in the context of 2-part music (harmony and counterpoint).

d. Perform melodies and rhythms accurately at a steady tempo.

e. Perform music expressively, using appropriate phrasing, articulation and dynamics.

f. Identify and respond to basic conducting beats and gestures including: preparatory beats, releases, tempo changes, entrance cues, dynamics and other expressive gestures.

g. Perform music of a variety of styles and cultures.

h. Perform utilizing appropriate balance, blend and timbre to achieve a refined ensemble sound.

i. Perform music in a variety of meters including 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2 and 6/8.

j. Demonstrate appropriate care of the voice.

2. Reading and notating music
Students will:

a. Read and be able to perform the following note values and corresponding rests: whole, half, quarter, eighth, dotted half, dotted quarter, dotted eighth, eighth note and quarter note triplets and sixteenth notes in the following meters: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2, 3/8 and 6/8.

b. Identify all pitches within the treble clef and bass clef within the appropriate range for his/her voice part.

c. Identify and describe time signatures by the number of beats per measure and the unit of beat including: 4/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/2, 3/8 and 6/8.

d. Interpret and count grade level appropriate rhythms orally using the numerical counting system. Use syllabic counting systems in conjunction with numbers when appropriate.

e. Identify the symbols for #, b, and natural

f. Identify and perform the following: dynamic markings (ppp-fff, subito piano, and crescendo, molto crescendo, decrescendo and diminuendo)

g. Identify the articulation markings: accent, legato, staccato, marcato, and tenuto.

h. Interpret and perform given tempo markings and alterations as notated in appropriate music selections including allegro, moderato, presto, grave, and rallentando.

i. Identify, interpret and perform directions given in the music including: fermatas, repeats, 1st and 2nd endings, D.C. and D.S. indications, codas and multiple measure rests.

j. Sight-read grade level melodies in the appropriate voice range and clef.



Concert Choir and Honors Chamber Choir
(Accomplished & Advanced)

1. Singing alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music

Students will:

a. Sing independently, demonstrating good posture and correct breath control.

b. Sing alone and in small and large ensembles demonstrating independence in executing his/her own part.

c. Perform melodies and rhythms with appropriate dynamics at a steady tempo.

d. Understand and identify basic conducting beats and gestures including: preparatory beats, attacks, releases, tempo changes, entrance cues, dynamic and other expressive gestures.

e. Perform music of a variety of styles and cultures using expression, phrasing and timbre appropriate for the work being performed.

f. Understand and be able to perform with others to achieve a refined ensemble sound including blend, balance and timbre.

g. Perform accurately and expressively three, four, five and eight part music.

h. Perform music in the following meters: Duple: 2/2, 2/4, 2/8; Triple: 3/2, ¾, 3/8; Quadruple: 4/2, 4/4, 4/8; Compound Duple: 6/2, 6/4, 6/8; Compound Triple: 9/4, 9/8; Compound Quadruple: 12/4, 12/8, 12/16;Compound Quintuple: 5/4; Compound Septuple: 7/4.

i. Demonstrate appropriate care of his/her vocal mechanism.

j. Demonstrate correct choral vowels and consonants.

k. Perform music in different tonalities (including but not limited to major, minor, modal, atonal, bitonal, and polytonal)

2. Reading and notating music

Students will:

a. Identify all pitches within the clef and appropriate to his/her range.

b. Read and be able to perform the following rhythms, dotted rhythms and their equivalent rests in 2/2, 2/4, 4/4, 3/8, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8; whole note, half note, quarter note, eighth note, sixteenth note, thirty-second note, dotted half note, dotted quarter note, dotted eighth note, dotted sixteenth note, dotted thirty-second note.

c. Identify and describe time signatures by the number of beats per measure and the unit of beat including: 2/2, 2/4, 2/8, 3/2, ¾, 3/8, 4/2, 4/4, 4/8, 6/2, 6/4, 6/8, 7/4, 9/4, 9/8, 12/4, 12/8, 12/8.

d. Sight-read melodies in major and minor keys, utilizing sol fege syllables, which may include triadic or intervallic leaps.

e. Identify major or minor key signatures of repertoire currently in use.

f. Identify and perform the dynamic markings from repertoire currently in use (including but not limited to: pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff, crescendo & decrescendo sfz, sfzp cresc., fp.)

g. Interpret and perform tempo markings from repertoire currently in use (including but not limited to: Largo, Lento, Adagio, Andante, Moderato, Allegretto, Allegro, Presto, Prestissimo, Accelerando, Ritardando, Rubato).


h. Understand and perform the following articulations from repertoire currently in use: legato, staccato, marcato, tenuto, slurs, appropriate articulation, variety of attack, subtle crescendo/decrescendo.

i. Interpret and perform musical score directions from repertoire currently in use (including but not limited to: repeat signs, 1st & 2nd endings, D.C., D.S. indications, multiple measure rests, coda, D.C. Al Fine.)



Grade Level Performance Skill Expectations:
http://www.amazon.com/Essential-Musicianship-Comprehensive-Capital-Relations/dp/0793543320
High School Honors Ensemble Expectations
Music students accepted into the 400 level Honors performance ensembles will be selected by audition and departmental approval. The students in these ensembles will be expected to independently pursue opportunities for personal musical growth over the course of the school year and will be expected to satisfactorily complete the following projects:
(All projects must be reviewed approved by the instructor.)


Performance
(Choose one per quarter)
• Youth Symphony participation.
• Organize and present a Small Ensemble to the class or on a concert performance. (Spring Small Ensemble Concert)
• Preparation and Audition for CT Western Region/All-State: graded etude or solo literature.
• Perform successfully at a Tri-M (Music Honor Society) recital.
• Participate as a member of Pops Strings, an Acapella Vocal Ensemble, Jazz Ensemble, Jazz Small Ensemble or Percussion Ensemble or other small ensemble.
• Perform at local nursing homes or for a charitable organization.

Concert Attendance
(at least one of these choices must be similar to your performance genre, only one of a pop/rock concert and only two of a recorded performance. (Choose one per quarter)
• Attend a non-school concert and write a short review with established departmental guidelines. (Program or ticket stub submitted as evidence)
• Attend a school concert in which you are not performing and write a short review with established departmental guidelines. (Evidence of attendance required)
• Review a live or pre-recorded performance on TV, YouTube, other within departmental guidelines. Performance should be one hour minimum in duration. Preference given to a performance recital of a performer on your instrument.

Additional Semester Requirements
(Choose one per semester)
• Create an original composition and perform on a Young Composer Concert or for the class.
• Do a research project on an approved/ relevant composer or performer or historical period (may connect to curricular focus theme) and present to the class via PowerPoint. (8-10 minutes in length)
• Other…..present a project idea to your teacher for approval.
• Assist with district elementary honors ensembles (4th quarter/space is limited).
• Participate in the Middlesex Middle School after school mentor/lesson program.
• Create a community service project of your own, with instructor’s consent.
• Participate in the MMS after school Music Mentor program.
• Research, prepare a score and conduct a selection with an ensemble.

Grade 9-12
Full transcript