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Church History Chapters 4 and 5

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Eddie Vega

on 22 September 2016

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Transcript of Church History Chapters 4 and 5

Church History Chapters 4 and 5
Martyrs, Heretics, and Trailblazers

Constantine 272-337
Ambrose of Milan 340-397
Council of Chalcedon (451)
Vega of McAllen
Persecution of Christians
Antony of Egypt circa 251-356
Theodosius 347-395
Jerome (347-420)
Leo the Great (400-461)
Romans demanded conformity
refusal to observe Roman sacrifices and pay homage to "divine" emperor
actions deemed "unpatriotic"
250 C.E. - emperor requires citizens to carry proof of sacrifice
Christians refused military service
Pacifism - belief that it is wrong to kill in war or for any other purpose
General persecution ordered
Bishops of Rome, Antioch, and Jerusalem martyred
Diocletian
competent emperor
demanded conformity
Persecutions - churches destroyed, books burned, leaders executed
Had Christian relatives
Apostasy - renouncing the faith
Christians made sacrifices out of fear
public penance and ritual for re-entry to Church lead to development of the
Sacrament of Reconciliation
Ignatius - Bishop of Antioch
wrote letters to people of each city where he stopped on the way to Rome
fed to lions
Justin Martyr
early theologian
bridged gap between Christianity and philosophy
apologist - "defender of the faith"
arrested and executed for being Christian
students joined him...willingly
Church Structures and Roles
Bishops
episkopos -
Pope?
after fall of Jerusalem, Church became centered in Rome
Deacons/Deaconesses
overseer; supervisor
selected from among community
led worship
supervised congregation
assistant to the deacon
attended to welfare the community's poor
not a full-time job
Bishop of Rome = Successor of Peter
established preeminence

Chosen emperor by Roman troops in Britain
Faced forces of a rival emperor
Christian mother (Helena)
a vision before the battle...
313 - Edict of Milan
Byzantium = New Rome = Constantinople
324 - becomes sole emperor
330 - moves capital
Church-State Entanglement
built churches
Church became allied with Rome
monasticism - movement of men and women away from the world to pursue holiness
search for truth and meaning in the wilderness
monos
- "alone" or "single"
the first monks were hermits
Antony of Egypt (Antony of the Desert)
followed Luke 18:22
270 - moved into the desert
sought out by younger people
healings, advice, confronted demons
escaped further into the desert
Monasticism
rejected "soft" Christianity
contemplation - being silently present to the loving God
Gnosticism
first appeared in 2nd Cent.
Arianism
Donatism
Validity of a sacrament depends on the minister of the sacrament
Pelagianism
salvation without help (grace)
Heresies
beliefs contrary to an essential belief of the faith
all material things (including human body) are evil
believed they possessed a secret knowledge
gnosos
- knowledge
denied Jesus' humanity
Irenaeus of Lyons - opposed Gnostics
Apostles' Creed
developed to oppose gnostics
denied Jesus' divinity
Arius
priest in Alexandria
Council of Nicaea (325)
called by Constantine
condemned Arius
established Nicene Creed
Arianism spreads
becomes a political football
Athanasius
present at Nicaea
from Alexandria
"Jesus is the brilliant reflection of the light that is God"
380 - made Christianity official
Basil the Great 329-379
130-202
Augustine of Hippo 354-430
Ann of Long Island
some monks had disordered practices
Basil
studied to become a teacher
left teaching post to become a hermit in Cappadocia
Joined by other young men
Developed a rule of life for them
Basil's Rule
stressed simple living
own almost nothing
eat only what is necessary
obey the abbot
Basil's Rule
seek God through the silence of prayer
help the poor
care for the sick
Emperors installed bishops
Arian emperor - Arian bishop
Catholic emperor - Catholic bishop
Milan
Emperor installs Arian bishop
People riot in the streets
The crowd was calmed by Ambrose, governor of Milan
Crowd asks that Ambrose be bishop
Ambrose was only a catechumen
baptized,
ordained deacon,
ordained priest ,
ordained bishop

all in a single week!
studied scripture and philosophy
able administrator
excellent sermons/homilies
objected to state interference in Church matters
"excommunicated" by Ambrose

made a public penance
grew up pagan
converted at 18
becomes desert hermit
travels to Constantinople and Rome
becomes pope's secretary
moves to Bethlehem
built monastery
translates scriptures into Latin
Vulgatum
(Vulgate)
born to a pagan father and Christian mother (St. Monica)
excellent student
liked to party
became a teacher
took a mistress
had a son (Adeodatus)
joined the Manichaeans
Manichaeism
dualistic
no one is responsible for their sins
two influences:
traveled to Milan
Plato
Ambrose
World of Ideas
Concept of "The Good"
Augustine converts
Problems with personal sin
"take and read, take and read"
Romans 13:13-14
major works:
Confessions
City of God
arose from persecutions
believed that apostasy could not be forgiven
Response (from Augustine):
Sacraments come from God through the ministry of the priest
did not believe in infant baptism
Response (from Augustine)
Grace
Original Sin
autobiography
story of his youth and conversion
City of God
those who put their faith in God
live in service and love
those who pursue selfish interests
vs.
City of Man
seek their own gratification
Roman Empire
As Roman Empire declines,
Church fills void
410 - Rome (city) falls to the Goths
440 - Leo becomes pope
Pontifex Maximus
title used by Roman emperors
"highest bridge maker"
Supreme Pontiff - title used by pope
from Greek,
pappas
(father; daddy)
used when Roman community was small
Attila the Hun
marched toward Rome
emperor asked Leo to intervene
Attila did not attack Rome
10 years later, Leo also negotiated with the Vandals
Vandals did not attack Rome
Called by Leo
argument over the nature (or natures) of Jesus
Decision:
Jesus is one person with two natures -
human and divine
first schism in the Church
Syrian and Ethiopian (Coptic) bishops left
- belief that Jesus had one nature
Issues of primacy
Council affirmed Rome as preeminent
Raised Constantinople to second
- Leo disagreed
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