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The comparison of mitochondria & chloroplasts

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on 20 October 2013

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Transcript of The comparison of mitochondria & chloroplasts

The comparison of mitochondria & chloroplasts
Have you ever thought about the similarities and differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts?

Well, hopefully the answer is not too much, because otherwise you'll probably find this extremely tedious...

Let's catch up...
Some 4 billion years ago...
EARTH
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are more related then it may at first seem...
Not quite as we know it...
ENDOSYMBIOSIS
The basic run down:
Billions of years ago, an organism(s) engulfed another organism(s)
It is thought the organism(s) engulfed were particularly good at a particular process
The organisms that engulfed others became eukaryotic cells
The organisms that were engulfed became organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts
The theory of endosymbiosis is quite complex, obviously, but if you want to read up on it some good websites include:
http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/endosymbiotic-theory.html
http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Evolution/Endosymbiosis.htm
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/9834092339/student_view0/chapter4/animation_-_endosymbiosis.html
Good for essays!
Basic facts to remember...
Similarities
Differences
Well, maybe...
Theory?
"Well, this theory is all well and good but where's the evidence?", you say.
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Functional similarities
Mitochondria Structure
Chloroplast Structure
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are membrane bound organelles found in the cells of organisms and carry out vital processes which are necessary for the organism to be able to live.
Mitochondria are found in all respiring cells of all organisms and carry out enzyme-controlled reactions to produce ATP from glucose in aerobic respiration.
Chloroplasts are found in the photosynthetic tissue of plants and contain photosystems that convert light energy into chemical potential energy in the form of glucose.
Contains a double membrane with an inter-membrane space.
Contains 70S ribosomes (RNA) that an be either free or attached to the membrane.
Contains the matrix which has enzymes and DNA in it.
A really good fact sheet with the similarities and differences between chloroplasts and mitochondria can be found on the website:

http://kingsfieldbiology.wikispaces.com/file/view/61_CHLOROPLAST.pdf

Thank you for listening!

By Alysha Searle and Fern Buller
Contains an inner and outer membrane.
Contains thylakoid discs that have a lumen.
Contains 70S ribosomes (RNA) which may be free or attached to membranes.
Contains the stroma which has enzymes and DNA.
Functional Differences
Mitochondria Structure
Chloroplasts Structure
Both organelles contain DNA and RNA.
They contain similar enzymes and coenzymes.
Cyclic processes occur in the matrix and the stroma respectively.
Mitochondria are generally rod shaped.
They contain cristae which are extensions of the inner membrane. They are covered in small spherical bodies called oxysomes.
Mitochondria do not contain temporary stores of starch or lipids.
Mitochondria do not contain photosynthetic pigments.
Cloroplasts are biconvex in shape.
Chloroplasts contain photosynthetic pigments that are located in photosystems.
They have photosystems that are located in the thylakoids which are made up of a double membrane called lamellae.
Chloroplasts may contain stores of starch and lipids.
Although they do have functional similarities, fundamentally mitochondria and chloroplasts carry out the opposite processes.
Chloroplasts are concerned with photosynthesis whereas mitochondria re concerned with aerobic respiration.
The entire process of photosynthesis is carried out in the chloroplasts whereas this is not the case for aerobic respiration in the mitochondria.
The first stage of photosynthesis occurs in the thylakoid membranes and the products are transported into the stroma whereas it is the opposite for aerobic respiration in the matrix.
The main coenzyme used in photosynthesis is NADP whereas in aerobic respiration it is NAD.
Full transcript