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on 19 November 2013

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A stereotype is a thought that may be adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of doing things, but that belief may or may not accurately reflect reality
How do different countries interact?

In this section we'll look at why countries behave as they do.

We'll consider the relations between the USA and the USSR during The Cold War as an example.
The future of China in the world
Since the end of The Cold War, the USA has been the undisputed world superpower. However, China is on the rise. Do you think China will become the biggest superpower? If so, when, and how?
There are three types of international organisation.

International NGOs (e.g. Medicins Sans Frontiéres.
International corporations (e.g. Coca-Cola)
Intergovernmental organisations.

We will be looking at the
latter most
In groups of 3 or 4, define the stereotype of the following nationalities:

British people
American people
French people
Chinese people
Language for stereotypes
Complete the sentences with the dependent prepositions:

To (2) With (2) Of (2) For At

1. Have a love _____________.
2. Have a reluctance ______________.
3. Are proud ________________.
4. Have an obsession ______________.
5. Have a fascination _______________.
6. Have a passion _________________.
7. Are great ___________________.
8. Have the ability ___________________.
Stereotypes guessing game
Use 5 of the sentences from the last exercise to create a stereotype about a group of people. I will then read them all to the group and you will get points for correct answers. Keep your answers a secret from other groups!
Harmful or Helpful
In groups, come up with two reasons that stereotypes might be harmful, and two that they might be helpful.
Stereotypes can be helpful
Stereotypes, like other forms of categories, can be helpful or harmful depending on how we use them. Effective stereotyping allows people to understand and act appropriately in new situations. A stereotype becomes helpful when it is:

*Consciously held. People should be aware they are describing a group norm rather than the characteristics of a specific individual.

*Descriptive rather than evaluative. The stereotype should describe what people from this group will probably be like and not evaluate the people as good or bad.

*Accurate. The stereotype should accurately describe the norm for the group to which the person belongs

*The first best guess about a group prior to acquiring information about the specific person or persons involved

*Modified, based on further observation and experience with the actual people and situations.
However they can also be harmful...
There are many negative effects:

Stereotype threat occurs when people are aware of a negative stereotype about their social group and experience anxiety or concern that they might confirm the stereotype. Stereotype threat has been shown to undermine performance.

Self-fulfilling prophecies.


Self-stereotyping (thinking you are worse at something than you really are)
Stereotype threat
How many intergovernmental organisations can you think of in your group.
Abbreviations, initialisms and acronyms
An abbreviation is when we shorten a word, such as Dr. Mrs. Abbr. etc.
An initialism is when we shorten a name to its component letters and say the letters individually (e.g. BBC)
An acronym is when we shorten a name to its component letters and say this as a new word (e.g. TOEFL)
The European Union
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states located primarily in Europe.

Its combined populated is over 500 million with a combined GDP of over $16.5tn (by way of comparison the USA's GDP was approximately $1tn less, although with a higher GDP/capita)

Unlike many international organisations it does not have a clear mission statement.

Its headquarters are based in several locations to avoid one country having too much power. The political HQ is in Brussels (Belgium), while the economic HQ is in Frankfurt (Germany).

Although English is the most widely spoken language, more people speak German as a native than any other. It actually has 24 official languages.
The History of the EU
In the 1950s, shortly after the end of world war 2, with the rise of communism in the east, western Europe wanted to ensure that there would be no more nationalism and no more conflict.

The six founders are Belgium, France, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany and Italy (at this time it is called The European Coal and Steel Community).

In 1957 the signing of the Treaty of Rome created the European Economic Community (EEC).

The first enlargement came in 1973 when Denmark, Ireland and the UK joined. In 1981, the EEC became 10 when Greece joined, and in 1986 Spain and Portugal were added.
The history continued.
In 1986, the Single European Act was signed meaning that countries could trade without taxes across borders. The process was completed in 1993 with the 4 freedoms: Money, goods, services and people and the EU was born.

In 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden made the EU 15 states. In 1999 the Euro was launched and on 1 January 2002 it became the currency of millions of Europeans.

In 2004 Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia joined, and in 2007 Bulgaria and Romania to the total number of states to 27.

The most recent member, Croatia, joined on 1 July 2013.

Criteria for joining the European Union
Known as the Copenhagen criteria, countries MUST:

Be European, but it does not say what this means and Morocco and Israel have applied in the past.
Be a democracy and adhere to the rule of law.
Respect human rights.
Respect minorities.
Have a free market economy.
Must & Necessity
We use must to convey a necessity, a strong recommendation or a certainty. When considering a necessity, the tense and whether the sentence is positive or negative affects the form.
Imagine you are in charge of China. Create some rules for joining an Asian union. Try to use the different tenses if possible.
China and the EU
Relations between China and the EU were established in 1975.

Historically, China has been less interested in the EU than in America.

Now China is the EU's second biggest trade partner after the USA.
The Bra Wars:

Chinese manufacturers are able to produce textiles cheaper than their European counterparts because it is very labour intensive and labour is cheaper in China.

As a result, their were quotas on the limits of textiles that could be imported from China and other developing countries.

As a result, according to the IMF, 27 million jobs were lost and $40bn per year to the developing world.

When these restrictions were relaxed in 2005, the Chinese sent over 75 million garments to Europe immediately trying to cash in, and used an entire year's quota almost immediately.

Do you think it's right that the EU restricts imports from China? How do China treat imports from the EU? Is this right?
Disputes continued...

The EU (and the US) refuse to sell weapons to China. The EU claim this is due to human rights concerns, while China calls it discrimination.

There is pressure from the US not to sell arms to China for fear that they may copy the technology.

Do you think the US/EU behaviour is right? Why or why not?
The United Nations
You'll see from your homework what the UN does. Many are critical and claim it is a worthless organisation. Watch this video, how does it make its point?
Satire is the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.

Parody, exaggeration, comparison, analogy, and double entendre are all frequently used in satirical speech and writing.
An analogy is a comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification. These could be similies or metaphors, or entire texts.

One of the most famous analogies is Animal Farm...
How do you view the world
Grade your neighbour's paper. Give them 1 point for each answer that is an A, 2 for a B and 3 for a C.

If you scored:

9-13 - You are a realist.
14-22 - You are a liberalist.
22-27 - You are a constructivist.
Realism is the oldest school of international relations theory. The first realist was Sun Tzu, but others include Thucydides, Hobbes, Machiavelli and Roosevelt.

They believe the world is an awful place, to quote Hobbes life is "nasty, brutish and short". If man could, he would kill his neighbour for more land and more power and the only thing that can prevent this is if each man believes there is more for him to lose than to gain by taking action against his neighbour.
Realism and The Cold War
This was the major school of thought in The Cold War, particularly when viewing the nuclear arms race. Scholars believed that because all of the major players knew any nuclear strikes would be met with retaliation, nobody could take action and it kept the world a peaceful place (this is known as mutually assured destruction, or MAD).

People think that Russia (in Cuba and other communist states) used other nations to promote its power, just as the US did in Latin America.

Realism has been heavily criticised because it failed to explain or predict the end of the cold war.
Game theory and The Cold War
Get into pairs. One of you will be the President of the USA, the other will be the Premier of the Soviet Union. Relations are not good. You have to decide whether to bomb the other country.

If neither of you bomb, you are embarrassed in front of your country for being weak, not get re-elected, but you will survive.

If only one of you bombs, then that person will be re-elected, whereas the other will be bombed and die.

If you both bomb, you're both dead.

You have one minute to convince your partner on what to do.
Game theory continued.
With the threat of MAD, the case was that if either of you bombed, you'd both bomb and therefore all die. The only positive outcome was to be selfish and not bomb, even though this could make you look weak.
Game theory continued.
Watch the video. Describe both of their reactions to what happened to your partner.
Liberalism, like realism, has been around for hundreds of years.

It believes that people have a common bond and can therefore make relationships around the globe. Unlike realism, victories can be win-win and not winning at somebody else's expense.

Liberalism agrees that power is an important structure in global politics. However it thinks that people can find mutual interests and co-operate to achieve them. They recognise altruism, which realists cannot accept exist.

A liberalist would argue that the UN is an example of the liberal world-view being correct.

Liberalism and The Cold War
While realism was popular for explaining WW2 and the 1950s and 60s in The Cold War, liberalism became more popular in explaining the cold war in the 70s and 80s.

Realism was certain the world would destroy itself, but liberalism thought that the spread of democracy and the rise of such institutions as the EU and the UN would prevent armageddon.
Constructivism goes further. Not only are states and intergovernmental organisations important, but relations are an interactive process in which actors (individuals, groups, or states) create structures (treaties, laws, international organisations) which in turn inform the on how to think and communicate.
Constructivism and the Cold War
Constructivists argue that towards the end of the Cold War, nations within the USSR shifted their political identities to being Russian, Ukranian, Kazakhs etc. they constructed new identities, deconstructed the old ones and with them the USSR.

Advocates of this theory arose because of the end of the Cold War.
Root Words - Voc
The root Voc means to call. Match the 6 words below to their definitions, then write a sentence using that root.

Voice Unequivocal Vociferous Advocate Vocabulary Irrevocable
1. A list of words that we are able to call in any given situation.
2. Someone who calls his opinion loudly and strongly because he wants his views to be heard.
3. The functions used to call something.
4. Admitting to (or calling out) no doubt or misunderstanding.
5. An action or decision it is impossible to call to a stop or to change.
6. When you call publicly for an action or plan to take place.
How far can China rise?
Watch the video and answer the questions.
China's foreign policy
As China becomes stronger, it faces pressure to become more involved in global affairs.

It has been expanding at a startling rate. In 2000, trade in Africa was worth $10bn. By 2011 it was worth $150bn. It spent $200m for the new African Union headquarters that opened in Ethiopia in January.

In 12 years the military budget has risen from $14.6bn to $106bn (although many estimate it to be higher).

Foreign Policy Continued...
There are also problems. China is expected to be the world's biggest oil importer in the next decade. Why is this a problem?

It is also more exposed to international problems, such as the European debt crisis.

There are many conflicts between central and local government officials on what foreign policy should be.

How involved do you think China should be in global affairs. What more (or less) should it be doing?
Essay assignment
Read the article on China in South East asia. Using this AND OTHER RESEARCH answer the following question.

"China has a responsibility to become more involved in global politics. Discuss"

The essay should be 750 words long and in MLA format.
International Relations.
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