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ABA 720 Behavioral Measurement & Data Collection Methods

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Kenneth Shamlian

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of ABA 720 Behavioral Measurement & Data Collection Methods

Provides an estimate of a behavior or behavioral episode, rather than a true representation.

Used for convenience and typically captures the relevant dimensions of the target behaviors of interest.

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability Countability Cycle

Temporal locus & repeatability Frequency (rate) Cycles (unit of time)

Temporal locus & repeatability Celeration

Temporal locus & repeatability

____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability Countability Cycle

Temporal locus & repeatability Frequency (rate) Cycles (unit of time)

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability Countability Cycle

Temporal locus & repeatability Frequency (rate)

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability Countability Cycle

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability Countability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_______________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _______________________________________________________

Temporal locus
Temporal extent
Repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency

Temporal extent

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

ABA 720
Assessment & Measuring Behavior
Behavioral Measurement and Data Collection Methods

____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability Countability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_______________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _______________________________________________________

Temporal locus
Temporal extent
Repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency

Temporal extent

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Defining Behavior
Data Collection Methods
Defining Target Behaviors
Definitions should be observable, concise, detailed, and unambiguous (Roane et al., 2011)

Evaluating the quality of an operational definition (Morris, 1985):

Can the number of times the behavior occurs in a minute or the number of minutes the behavior was done be counted?

Would a stranger know exactly what to look for?

Can the behavior be further broken down?


Discontinuous Recording Methods


Whole Interval
The interval is scored if the behavior occurred for the duration of the entire interval
In general: Underestimates frequency and duration of responses with moderate rate and duration

Partial Interval
The interval is scored as positive if the target behavior occurs at any point within the interval
In general: Overestimates frequency and duration of responses with moderate rate and duration

Momentary Time Sampling


Aggression


Hitting/Punching - Forceful contact or attempted contact of hand (open or closed) or arm against therapist

Kicking - Forceful contact or attempted contact of foot or leg with the therapist’s body

Pushing/Pulling - Applying force to therapist’s body, attempting to move therapist, or pulling any part of therapist’s body

Grabbing - Applying force to therapist’s body, putting at least one hand around any part of a therapist’s body or clothes

Throwing - Throwing any object at therapist

Pinching – Closure of client’s thumb and at least one other finger around therapist’s skin or through therapist’s shirt in a forceful manner

Scratching - Forceful contact of fingernails against or along therapist’s skin

Self-Injurious Behavior


Head Banging - Forceful contact of head against stationary objects or materials, with a distance of 6 inches or greater

Self-Hitting - Forceful contact or attempted contact of hand against any part of client’s body, open or closed (from at least 2 inches away)

Biting - Closure of client’s teeth around any part of client’s body

Eye poking - Contact between at least one of client’s finger or any object with at least one of the client’s eyes (score each time a finger or object contacts an eye)

Body Slamming - Forceful contact between client’s body and a wall, from a distance of at least 6 inches


Properties, Dimensional Quantities,and Units of Behavioral Measurement
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit
Temporal locus Latency Time Units


Property Dimensional Quantity Unit
Temporal extent Duration Time Units



Property Dimensional Quantity Unit
Repeatability Countability Cycle



Property Dimensional Quantity Unit
Temporal locus & Frequency (rate) Cycles
repeatability (unit of time)




Property Dimensional Quantity Unit
Temporal locus & IRT (inter-response time) Time/Cycles
repeatability



____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability Countability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit ____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration Time Units

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency Time Units

Temporal extent Duration

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

_______________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _______________________________________________________

Temporal locus
Temporal extent
Repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability
Temporal locus & repeatability

_____________________________________________________________
Property Dimensional Quantity Unit _____________________________________________________________

Temporal locus Latency

Temporal extent

Repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Temporal locus & repeatability

Continuous Recording Methods

Advantages:
Provides the most accurate record of data.

Disadvantages:
Labor intensive
Sometimes impractical

Types of Continuous:
Count-within interval (combination of both): Recording frequency within a determined interval (e.g. 10s interval).
Frequency
Duration
Latency


Factors to consider:

How often the behaviors occur

How variable in duration key target behaviors are
Resources for data collection

Representativeness of observational samples

Can the child self-record data?

What is the purpose of collecting data?

Can one practice ABA without collecting data?

The tension between practicality, accuracy, and completeness

What is the right balance?

How useful are inaccurate or incomplete data?

Duration Data
Useful when the variability of the duration of a behavior or behavioral stream or episode is of concern

Time beginning with the onset of the first response in a response class
Time ending with the last response in the response class according to a rule (e.g., 2 min without the target behavior occurring
Data taken with stopwatch or computer software

Applications
Time spent engaged in an assigned activity
Time engaged in a particular behavioral sequence (conversation, tantrum, stereotypic behavior)
Time spent in contact with a feared stimulus

Latency Data
Useful to examine the time between events and behavior, behavior and events, and behavior and behavior

Time beginning from the onset of a stimulus to the onset of the response in the response class
Data collected via stopwatch or computer software

Applications
Time from the delivery of an instruction to initiation of corresponding activity
Time to the first response occurring in a response class
Time to the first unpleasant autonomic response following exposure to a feared stimulus

Inter-Response Time Data
A form of latency data; useful to distinguish between steady rate behavior and bouts or bursts of behavior

Applications
Within session analysis to identify acceleration, deceleration, or steady state patterns

Interval Recording Methods
Computerized Real Time Data Collection
Supported by various software
Allows measurement of behaviors and events with 1 sec accuracy
Event keys and duration keys
Some programs analyze the data

Permanent Products
Physical, durable changes in the environment that result from behavior
Practical and reasonably accurate when available

Applications
Academic performance
Destructive behavior
Task completion of various types
Odometers, pedometers
Letters, notes

Trial Data
Used when response to a specific stimulus is of interest rather than free operant behavior

Applications
Teaching trials
Response to various prompting procedures
Discrete trial instruction, incidental teaching

Scatterplot
Touchette, McDonald & Langer, JABA 1985

Used to identify the relationship between target behaviors and times/activities across the day

Less accurate than interval recording

Samples the entire day

Good for low rate, high intensity target behaviors

Practical for teachers, parents, staff

Ratings
A rank ordering of some dimension of behavior
Count
Duration
Intensity

Usually done at the end of some time interval
Depends on the recall of the data collector
Can be subjective and subject to error
A practical alternative or supplement to interval recording
Often used to obtain measures of social validity

Data Collection from Video and Audio Tapes
Permits use of interval recording methods or computer-based methods when convenient

Facilitates collection of interobserver agreement data
Limitations

Sometimes difficult to accurately measure voices
Broader context sometimes not accessible
Less accurate for subtle behaviors

Automated Direct Measurement
Participant worn video or audio devices

Biofeedback measures

Measures of motion

Physiological measures sensitive to anxiety, fear (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure, more?

Automated scoring of test performance

In Summary ...
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