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Transcript of Benner powerpoint
Received Ph.D. in 1982 from University of California, Berkeley
Experienced as staff nurse and management
Currently director of NNES
Professor in dept. of Social and Behavioral Sciences at U of C
Authored and published numerous books and articles
Received numerous awards.
Director of National Nursing Educ. Research Project
Theory is derived from practice
Nurses can and do make a difference in the well being of patients
Caring is the core of nursing practice
No practitioner can practice beyond their experience
Experience and mastery of skill bring about improvement in performance.
Experience within a supportive environment fosters progression of skill acquisition
Experience allows for the development of caring
Experience fosters the intuitive grasp of the situation found in expert nurses
Experience impacts agency
Caring is socially embedded
Caring allows for personal concern about the patient
Concern allows for identification of stress
Attending to the embodied knowledge and emotions elicited by the situation is required for ethical judgement to occur
Expert level nursing care is achieved through caring and concerned involvement: knowing the patient
(George 2011) (p.590) (table 22-3).
Dalana Adams, Reena Heilmann, Tracie Welch, and Jamie White
Comparative to today
Black, B. P. (2014). Professional nursing: Concepts and challenges (7th ed.). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company ISBN 978-1-4557-0270-1
George, J. (2011). Philosophy of caring and expert nursing practice; Patricia Benner. In J. George (6th ed.), Nursing Theories: The base for professional nursing practice. (p.577-605). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.
• She was curious about how nurses transitioned from inexpert beginners to highly expert practitioners. She described a process consisting of five stages of nursing practice based on her book, From Novice to Expert, including; novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert
• Advancing through the stages occurs gradually as nurses gain more experience. “Clinical judgment is stimulated when the nurse’s preconceived notions and expectations collide with, or are confirmed by, the realities of everyday practice(Black,2014,p.121)
• Experience in the clinical setting is key, because it allows a nurse to continuously expand their knowledge base and to provide holistic, competent care to the patient
• Her research was aimed at discovering if there were distinguishable, characteristic differences in nurses’ in different stages descriptions of the same critical incident
The Metaparadigm of Nursing
Benner describes five levels of nursing skills based on the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition:
Novice are nursing students.
Advanced beginners are nurses that have just graduated.
Competent nurses have one to two years of experience in a specialty.
Proficient nurses start to rely less on theory and more on experience,
Expert nurses mostly rely on theory unless the clinical situation becomes unclear.
Caring primary focus
Nurses workload to heavy
Critical thinking becomes more intuitive as gained
Differentiating between thoughts and actions at all skill levels
In any given situation no matter the experience a nurse could be novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient or expert.