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Cranes & Rigging

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jason cuskelly

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of Cranes & Rigging

CRANES & RIGGING OSHA 1926 Subpart N &
1926 Subpart CC 1926 Subpart N - Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators and Conveyors
1926 Subpart CC - Cranes & Derricks in Construction CHANGES TO STANDARDS 1926.1400(a)
This standard applies to power-operated equipment, when used in construction, that can hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to: Articulating cranes (such as knuckle-boom cranes); crawler cranes; floating cranes; cranes on barges; locomotive cranes; mobile cranes (such as wheel-mounted, rough-terrain, all-terrain, commercial truck-mounted, and boom truck cranes); multi-purpose machines when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load; industrial cranes (such as carry-deck cranes); dedicated pile drivers; service/mechanic trucks with a hoisting device; a crane on a monorail; tower cranes (such as a fixed jib, i.e., "hammerhead boom"), luffing boom and self-erecting); pedestal cranes; portal cranes; overhead and gantry cranes; straddle cranes; sideboom cranes; derricks; and variations of such equipment. However, items listed in paragraph (c) of this section are excluded from the scope of this standard.

1926.1400(c) Exclusions. This subpart does not cover:
1926.1400(c)(1) Machinery included in paragraph (a) of this section while it has been converted or adapted for a non-hoisting/lifting use. Such conversions/adaptations include, but are not limited to, power shovels, excavators and concrete pumps.
1926.1400(c)(2) Power shovels, excavators, wheel loaders, backhoes, loader backhoes, track loaders. This machinery is also excluded when used with chains, slings or other rigging to lift suspended loads.
1926.1400(c)(8) Powered industrial trucks (forklifts), except when configured to hoist and lower (by means of a winch or hook) and horizontally move a suspended load. SCOPE SUBPART N - 1926.550-.556 RIGGING EQUIPMENT - (Where to Find) 1926.552(a)(1)

The employer shall comply with the manufacturer's specifications and limitations applicable to the operation of all hoists and elevators. Where manufacturer's specifications are not available, the limitations assigned to the equipment shall be based on the determinations of a professional engineer competent in the field. Material hoists
Personnel hoists
Elevators Subpart H - Materials Handling, Storage, Use and Disposal
1926.251 - Rigging equipment for material handling

Subpart N - Helicopters, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors
1926.551 & 552

Subpart CC - Cranes & Derricks in Construction Don't forget - Subpart Q - Concrete
Subpart R - Steel Erection TYPES OF RIGGING & INSPECTIONS Types of slings covered are those made from alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope (conventional three strand construction), and synthetic web (nylon, polyester, and polypropylene).

1926.251(a)(1)
Rigging equipment for material handling shall be inspected prior to use on each shift and as necessary during its use to ensure that it is safe. Defective rigging equipment shall be removed from service.

Permanently affixed and legible identifications markings with manufacture safe working load, !! not used without !!, removed from immediate work area when not in use, and removed from service when deficient or defective.
Special custom design grabs, hooks, clamps, or other lifting accessories, for such units as modular panels, prefabricated structures and similar materials, shall be marked to indicate the safe working loads and shall be proof-tested prior to use to 125 percent of their rated load. 1926.251(a)(6)
"Inspections." Each day before being used, the sling and all fastenings and attachments shall be inspected for damage or defects by a competent person designated by the employer. Additional inspections shall be performed during sling use, where service conditions warrant. Damaged or defective slings shall be immediately removed from service.
1926.251(b)(6) "Inspections."
1926.251(b)(6)(i)
In addition to the inspection required by other paragraphs of this section, a thorough periodic inspection of alloy steel chain slings in use shall be made on a regular basis, to be determined on the basis of (A) frequency of sling use; (B) severity of service conditions; (C) nature of lifts being made; and (D) experience gained on the service life of slings used in similar circumstances. Such inspections shall in no event be at intervals greater than once every 12 months.
1926.251(b)(6)(ii)
The employer shall make and maintain a record of the most recent month in which each alloy steel chain sling was thoroughly inspected, and shall make such record available for examination. INSPECTION Types of Wear, Damage, Environmental Effects, Mis-use of, etc.
ALL defined in Subparts H, N, CC as they apply to specific type of rigging/
material, or on manufactures details. QUALIFIED RIGGER Qualified evaluator (not a third party) means a person employed by the signal person's employer who has demonstrated that he/she is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.

Qualified evaluator (third party) means an entity that, due to its independence and expertise, has demonstrated that it is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.



Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project. QUALIFIED PERSON: QUALIFIED EVALUATOR: A rigger who meets the criteria for a qualified person. QUALIFIED RIGGER: Scope
Definitions
Ground Conditions
Assembly/Disassembly
Power Line Safety
Multiple Cranes, Design, Equip. Mods, Tower Cranes, Derricks, Overhead & Gantry, Pile Drivers, Sideboom
Equip. rated hoisting/lifting capacity <2,000 lbs

App A - Standard Hand Signals
App B - Ass/Dis - Sample Procedures, Min. Risk of Unintended Movement
App C - Operator Certification - Written Exam - Tech Knowledge Criteria Subpart CC Cranes and Derricks in Construction 1926.1400-.1442 Work Area Control
Operator Qual & Cert
Signal Person Qual
Training
Hoisting personnel Inspections
Safety Devices, Operational aides, Authority to stop
Signals
Fall Protection Have Lifting/Hoisting/Erection Plan, etc.
Compare Crane Capacity, Reach, etc., to Loads and Space Available
Identify Methods, Rigging, Communications, Overhead Power/Obstructions
Verify Crane and Operators Certifications, Signalers and Riggers Quals., etc.
Identify Access/Egress to work area and movement as work progresses, traveling in/out
Plan controlled areas for all lifting/hoisting activities and how they effect others CRANE PREPARATION AND USE *Ground conditions*
*Assembly/Set-up - (keep fall protection in mind)*
*Power Lines - (Voltages?)*
*Inspections - Equipment, Rigging, Materials*
*Operations - Communication, Rigging, Signaling, Barricading &
Controlling work area, Tag lines, Housekeeping* 2010 Overall
154 Accidents = 113 Deaths
2009 Overall
188 Accidents = 78 Deaths
2009 Assembly, Disassembly, Climbing
53 Accidents = 52 Deaths (Most deaths in 2009) ASSEMBLY/SET-UP/DISASSEMBLY GROUND CONDITIONS POWER LINES 1926.1407 - .1411 1926.1403 - .1406 FLOWCHART & TABLES INSPECTIONS DAMAGED, DEFECTIVE, NOT WORKING PROPERLY ? OPERATIONS 1926.1418
Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined that safety has been assured. AUTHORITY TO STOP 1926.1419 - Signals--general requirements.
1926.1419(a)
A signal person must be provided in each of the following situations:
1926.1419(a)(1)
The point of operation, meaning the load travel or the area near or at load placement, is not in full view of the operator.
1926.1419(a)(2)
When the equipment is traveling, the view in the direction of travel is obstructed.
1926.1419(a)(3)
Due to site specific safety concerns, either the operator or the person handling the load determines that it is necessary.

1926.1419(b)
Types of signals. Signals to operators must be by hand, voice, audible, or new signals.
(c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,l,m all other under general requirements)

1926.1420 - Signals--radio, telephone or other electronic transmission of signals.
1926.1421 - Signals--voice signals--additional requirements. SIGNALS - SIGNAL PERSON HAND
SIGNALS
Subpart CC
Appendix A
1926.1422
Hand signal charts must be either posted on the equipment or conspicuously posted in the vicinity of the hoisting operations. 1926.1423
a) Application
(b, c) Boom walkways, Steps, Ladders, Grab/Hand/Guardrails, Railings, etc.
(d) Personal Fall Arrest & Restraint Systems
(e) Non-Assembly/Disassembly - 6'
(f) Assembly/Disassembly - 15'
(g) Anchorage Criteria
(h) Tower Cranes
(i) Reserved
(j) Anchoring to load line
(k) Training FALL PROTECTION CONTROLLING WORK AREA & KEEPING CLEAR OF LOADS
(c)When employees are engaged in hooking, unhooking, or guiding the load, or in the initial connection of a load to a component or structure and are within the fall zone, all of the following criteria must be met:
(1)The materials being hoisted must be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement.
(2)Hooks with self-closing latches or their equivalent must be used. Exception: "J" hooks are permitted to be used for setting wooden trusses.
(3)The materials must be rigged by a qualified rigger.
(d)Receiving a load. Only employees needed to receive a load are permitted to be within the fall zone when a load is being landed.
(e)During a tilt-up or tilt-down operation:
(1)No employee must be directly under a load
(2)Only employees essential to the operation are permitted in the fall zone (but not directly under the load). An employee is essential to the operation if the employee is conducting one of the following operations and the employer can demonstrate it is infeasible for the employee to perform that operation from outside the fall zone: (1) Physically guide the load; (2) closely monitor and give instructions regarding the load's movement; or (3) either detach it from or initially attach it to another component or structure (such as, but not limited to, making an initial connection or installing bracing). 1926.1425 1926.1425
(a)Where available, hoisting routes that minimize the exposure of employees to hoisted loads must be used, to the extent consistent with public safety.
(b)While the operator is not moving a suspended load, no employee must be within the fall zone, except for employees:
(1)Engaged in hooking, unhooking or guiding a load;
(2)Engaged in the initial attachment of the load to a component or structure; or
(3)Operating a concrete hopper or concrete bucket. Keeping clear of loads 1926.1427(a)
The employer must ensure that, prior to operating any equipment covered under subpart CC, the person is operating the equipment during a training period in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section, or the operator is qualified or certified to operate the equipment in accordance with the following: CERTIFICATIONS & QUALIFICATIONS 1926.1427(b)
Option (1): Certification by an accredited crane operator testing organization. 1926.1427(c)
Option (2): Qualification by an audited employer program. The employer's qualification of its employee must meet the following requirements: 1926.1427(d)
Option (3): Qualification by the U.S. military. 1926.1427(e)
Option (4): Licensing by a government entity. 1926.1427(f)
Pre-qualification/certification training period. An employee who is not qualified or certified under this section is permitted to operate equipment only as an operator-in-training and only where the requirements of this paragraph are met. 1926.1427(g)1926.1427(h)1926.1427(i)[Reserved.]1926.1427(j)1926.1427(k)Phase-in. (k) Phase-in
Provisions effective Nov 10, 2008
exceptions:
(f) Pre Qual/Cert Training Period effective Nov 10, 2014
(a) (2) where (a) (1) N/A - Non-Military Government Entity issues operator licenses, (b) through (d) followed Crane Operators QUALIFIED SIGNALPERSON 1926.1428(a)
The employer of the signal person must ensure that each signal person meets the Qualification Requirements (paragraph (c) of this section) prior to giving any signals. This requirement must be met by using either Option (1) or Option (2) of this section. 1926.1428(a)(1)
Option (1)--Third party qualified evaluator. The signal person has documentation from a third party qualified evaluator (see Qualified Evaluator (third party), § 1926.1401 for definition) showing that the signal person meets the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section). 1926.1428(a)(2)
Option (2)--Employer's qualified evaluator. The employer's qualified (see Qualified Evaluator (not a third party), § 1926.1401 for definition) evaluator assesses the individual and determines that the individual meets the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section) and provides documentation of that determination. An assessment by an employer's qualified evaluator under this option is not portable--other employers are not permitted to use it to meet the requirements of this section. 1926.1428(c)
Qualification Requirements. Each signal person must:
(c)(1) Know and understand the type of signals used. If hand signals are used, the signal person must know and understand the Standard Method for hand signals.
(c)(2) Be competent in the application of the type of signals used.
(c)(3) Have a basic understanding of equipment operation and limitations, including the crane dynamics involved in swinging and stopping loads and boom deflection from hoisting loads.
(c)(4) Know and understand the relevant requirements of § 1926.1419 through § 1926.1422 and § 1926.1428.
(c)(5) Demonstrate that he/she meets the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section through an oral or written test, and through a practical test. 1926.1430 Training 1926.1429 Qualifications of Maintenance & Repair Employees 1926.1430(a)
Overhead powerlines 1926.1430(b)
Signal persons 1926.1430(c)
Operators 1926.1430(d)
Competent persons and qualified persons 1926.1430(e)
Crush/pinch points 1926.1430(f)
Tag-out 1926.1430(g)
Training administration 1926.1431 HOISTING PERSONNEL The requirements of this section are supplemental to the other requirements in this subpart and apply when one or more employees are hoisted.

1926.1431(a)
The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of the project's structural design or worksite conditions. This paragraph does not apply to work covered by subpart R (Steel Erection) of this part. 1926.1432 Multiple Crane Derrick Lifts-Supplemental Requirements
1926.1433 Design, Construction & Testing
1926.1434 Equipment Modifications
1926.1435 Tower Cranes
1926.1436 Derricks
1926.1437 Floating Cranes/Derricks & Land Cranes/Derricks on Barges
1926.1438 Overhead & Gantry Cranes
1926.1439 Dedicated Pile Drivers
1926.1440 Sideboom Cranes
1926.1441 Equipment w/ a rated hoisting/llifting capacity of <2,000 lbs .1432-.1441 Improper Training
Poor Set-up creating Tipping/Overturning
No or Poor Inspection and/or Mechanical Failure
Not Controlling Work Area
Contact with Power Lines
Falls
Unsafe Assembly/Disassembly
Overloading Equipment
Poor Communication HOW DO ACCIDENTS HAPPEN? HOW CAN WE PREVENT THEM? Training
Following Standards
Planning
Communication
Planning
Management Involvement
Communication
More Planning New Subpart for Cranes?
Are Forklifts included?
What about Excavators?
What should Tags have on them?
Qualified Person?
Qualified Evaluator?
What were teh most deaths from in 2009 in regards to Cranes?
What about usually?
Minimum Distance from up to 50kV?
Fall Protection required for Non-Assembly/Disassembly when?
Assembly/Disassembly?
Why do you use taglines?
When are these provisions in effect? ? QUESTIONS ? When is the deadline to be qualified as a signal person and/or rigger?
All signal persons and riggers must be qualified as of the effective date of the rule, November 8, 2010. There is no additional compliance period as there is for crane operators. EFFECTS OF LOAD AND WAY RIGGED
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