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Topic.12 The Cold War Era
Transcript of Topic.12 The Cold War Era
Mr. Michael Meechin
Attention shifts to weapons.
The Soviets acquire a nuclear weapon in 1949.
Following World War II - the United States joins the
The " "
Truman, speaking in front of Congress, asked for $400 million to back these countries...
Do you believe that the United States
should send dollars to aid
The Marshall Plan
Plan provided $12 billion in US aid to 16 countries in Western Europe to help them recover from WWII...
Point Four Program
The blockade was lifted by the Soviets in 1949...
Soviet's announce successful test in 1949.
Leads the United States to believe that the Soviets were spying on the U.S. Nuclear Program.
A line in the sand...
Turn attention to
People's Republic of China
is introduced by Mao Zedong ('Chairman Mao')
The Korean War
1950 Communist North Korean forces invaded South Korea...
Marks the beginning of a 3-year war between the North and South
"give the Korean government troops, cover, and support"
"troops, cover, and support"
To restore the pre-war border.
U.S. Committed to Fighting Communism
Tough to Fight a "Limited War"
Bay of Pigs Invasion
Bay of Pigs
In 1960, the Soviet Union provided the Castro government with $100 million...
trained anti-Castro forces in Florida;
US backed forces were defeated in three days...
Cuban Missile Crisis
In October 1962, U2 surveillance photos revealed that Soviet intermediate range ballistic missiles had been installed in Cuba
Once fired - a missile would have taken just five minutes to reach Washington, DC
Nikita Krushchev was in the mood to negotiate, 13 minutes prior to the United States deadline for military action...
In return for removing missiles from Cuba, the United States agreed not to invade the island
The United States had to also agree to remove missiles from Cuba
Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, Cold War tensions began to ease...
In 1963, the US, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed not to test nuclear weapons...
Allows the United States to get involved in other "extra" global issues during this era.
Questions for Discussion
What do you notice first as you look at these images?
What has the photographer captured in this photograph?
What do images such as these communicate about the Vietnam War to us today?
“I was to see that sight again, but once was enough. Flames were coming from a human being; his body slowly withering and shriveling up, his head blackening and charring. In the air was the smell of burning human flesh; human beings burn surprisingly quickly. Behind me I could hear the sobbing of the Vietnamese who were now gathering. I was too shocked to cry, too confused to take notes or ask questions, too bewildered to even think… As he burned he never moved a muscle, never uttered a sound, his outward composure in sharp contrast to the wailing people around him.”
Hard to Define.
Ho Chi Minh
Studied in the Soviet Union in the 50s
Organized a revolutionary Vietnamese force, declared independence from France in 1945...
French returned to 'Nam after WWII, and wanted to take it back...
Since, Minh was a Communist, guess what the United States did...
French were defeated in 1954, by Viet Minh
The country was supposed to remain divided until 1956, when elections were to be held...
South President, Ngo Diem, with US backing refused to participate...
Diem refused to make reforms backed by US, so he was overthrown by the
National Liberation Front
Johnson sent the first ground troops into Vietnam
Enemy: Vietcong (VC)
VC constantly supplied through network of tunnels
1968 Presidential Election
"federal law intended to restrict the power of the President to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of Congress"
"a national emergency created by attack upon the United States, its territories or possessions, or its armed forces."
Congress provided an authorization of use of military force.
Threat of losing civilian control over the military...
Long Term Effect:
Weary of sending troops for
military action abroad...
Support developing nations...
Easing of tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States...