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Global Study - Tourism
Transcript of Global Study - Tourism
How can tourism
Annual visitor Arrivals
e.g. 2.5 million visitors to
NZ in 2012
E.g. US$ 9 Billion
(visual rather than statistical)
Global Flight Patterns
Analyse aspects of a geographic topic at
a global scale
The number of tourist arrivals to each region has changed over time. This has created a
A temporal pattern is how something (tourist arrivals) changes over time to form some kind of arrangement (e.g. more tourists in one area compared to another).
The number of tourist arrivals varies from one place to another
over the earth's surface. This is called a
A spatial pattern is how something (tourist arrivals) forms some kind of arrangement over an area of the world (e.g. tourist arrivals are concentrated into a particular region of the world)
of global tourist arrivals - i.e. describe how the number of tourist arrivals have changed over time between the regions
tourist arrivals in 2013 - i.e. describe
how the tourist arrivals are spread out
between the regions
Since 1950, the
of international tourist arrivals (I.T.A) has changed considerably. In the 1950s ITA were almost exclusively concentrated in Europe and the Americas (25 million in 1950).
By 2013 the total annual number of ITA had grown to 1 billion and the
of ITA in each tourist region had changed.
In 2010 ITA were mostly
in Europe (51%), but Asia & Pacific destinations were the second (22%) and Americas were the third (14%).
Over the past 20 years there has been a
pattern of growth
for all tourist regions, but between 1995 and 2010 the Middle East and Africa has experienced the greatest rates of growth (10.5% & 7%)
Reasons for Patterns of Tourism
Temporal Patterns of Tourism
since 1950 people have become more wealthy. There is more disposable income. People also now have paid time off work for holidays.
As less developed nations have improved their wealth so there has been increased travel within their regions
(80% of international travel within regions)
China 1950 - US$ 427 pa
1980 - US $ 934 pa
2011 - US $8,800 pa
However many African countries still have very low levels of development and this reduces the international travel in the Region ... e.g. lowest levels in Central & west Africa (Niger, Sierra Leone, Congo)
Aviation & car developments
In 1968 the Boeing 747 was developed. Opened up trans Atlantic travel between Europe & N.America -e.g. Pan Am
Travel further & cheaper opened up new destinations e.g. Thailand (today ranked 10)
New airlines and routes open up new destinations in new regions e.g. Air China 1988. 2013 hawaiian airlines to NZ
Development of the car. 2013 40% of international travel by car.
More leisure time
Over time People are having longer paid holidays from work (on average three weeks per year are paid). People can travel further and for longer - increased European travel to Asia & pacific nations
Also people who are retired remain active for longer.
E.g. majority of international visitors to NZ +65 years (2013 - 2014 42,000 visitors)
Greater awareness of destinations
Advertising or television programmes (e.g. Travel Channel Sky) & Internet (over past 20 years)
People are more aware of how and where they can spend their free time - new destinations are discovered (esp in Asia, Pacific & India)
Countries open themselves to visitors
Countries relax visa restrictions - increases international tourist arrivals
Until the 1970s, the People’s Republic was effectively closed to Western visitors.
early 1980s, the student travel organisation STA sold the first “backpacker” trips to Beijing
2013 citizens of 45 countries, including the UK, are allowed to visit the capital for up to 72 hours
2014 - 57 million visitors to China (ranked 4th in world)
Technology / Social
Reasons for Temporal Patterns of Tourism
Disposable incomes & development
Technology / Social
Media & advertising
Which factor has affected the
pattern the most?
Factors affecting people leaving their generating country
Value of exchange rates
Cost of services e.g. health care
Standard of tourism services in country of origin
Climate may encourage people to travel overseas
Govt may restrict movement of people
Factors affecting people's choice of destination
Supply of tourism services
Price of products in destination
Strong culture in destination
Time & accessibility
Favourable climate in destination
Helath and safety in destination . War?
The globalisation of business and the international
migration of people has stimulated international travel to all regions of the world & investment in tourism globally - especially Asia
e.g. Hilton hotel is a global brand
2013 14% travel for business
Why is there a concentration of Tourism arrivals in Europe?
Europe has a population of
over 700 million. This is the
main market for European
destinations. Aprox 75% of all
international travel is from within
Countries that belong to the European
Union (EU) have open boarders for their
residents - visas are not required & the
tourists have the freedom of movement
Many countries in Western Europe are some of the most developed nations in the world. The residents have high average disposable incomes and have the freedom to travel
The road, rail & air infrastucture in Europe makes travel within Europe very quick.
E.g. London to Paris on Eurostar takes 2 hours 16 mins
Low cost airlines like Ryan Air & Easy
Jet have made international travel affordable
The supply of accommodtion, attractions & hospitality are highly developed in this region
202 000 Hotels in EU (27)in 2011 (12million beds)
27 000 campsites (9.5 million places)
Short / Long term
S o C i a L i M p A C t S
Continued unrest - war & terror - in the Middle East and parts of Africa
have restricted the growth of tourism.
* 2016 - 15 African countries engaged in war (e.g. Somalia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan)
E.g. In the Middle East notable conflicts have included Iraq war, Afganistan and now Syria, making the region unsafe for travel.
E.g. Myanmar relaxed travel restrictions in 2012