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Global Study - Tourism

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Nigel Bassett

on 15 June 2016

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Transcript of Global Study - Tourism

Globalization of tourism
How can tourism
be measured?
Annual visitor Arrivals
e.g. 2.5 million visitors to
NZ in 2012
Visitor nights
Tourist receipts

E.g. US$ 9 Billion
Alternative measurements
(visual rather than statistical)
Global Flight Patterns
Panaramio Photos
Geography 3.7

Analyse aspects of a geographic topic at
a global scale

3 credits
The number of tourist arrivals to each region has changed over time. This has created a
temporal pattern

A temporal pattern is how something (tourist arrivals) changes over time to form some kind of arrangement (e.g. more tourists in one area compared to another).
The number of tourist arrivals varies from one place to another

over the earth's surface. This is called a
spatial pattern

A spatial pattern is how something (tourist arrivals) forms some kind of arrangement over an area of the world (e.g. tourist arrivals are concentrated into a particular region of the world)
Describe the
temporal pattern
of global tourist arrivals - i.e. describe how the number of tourist arrivals have changed over time between the regions
Describe the
spatial pattern
of global
tourist arrivals in 2013 - i.e. describe
how the tourist arrivals are spread out
between the regions

Since 1950, the
of international tourist arrivals (I.T.A) has changed considerably. In the 1950s ITA were almost exclusively concentrated in Europe and the Americas (25 million in 1950).

By 2013 the total annual number of ITA had grown to 1 billion and the
of ITA in each tourist region had changed.

In 2010 ITA were mostly
in Europe (51%), but Asia & Pacific destinations were the second (22%) and Americas were the third (14%).

Over the past 20 years there has been a
pattern of growth
for all tourist regions, but between 1995 and 2010 the Middle East and Africa has experienced the greatest rates of growth (10.5% & 7%)
Reasons for Patterns of Tourism
Temporal Patterns of Tourism
More affluence

since 1950 people have become more wealthy. There is more disposable income. People also now have paid time off work for holidays.

As less developed nations have improved their wealth so there has been increased travel within their regions

(80% of international travel within regions)

China 1950 - US$ 427 pa
1980 - US $ 934 pa
2011 - US $8,800 pa

However many African countries still have very low levels of development and this reduces the international travel in the Region ... e.g. lowest levels in Central & west Africa (Niger, Sierra Leone, Congo)
Aviation & car developments
In 1968 the Boeing 747 was developed. Opened up trans Atlantic travel between Europe & N.America -e.g. Pan Am

Travel further & cheaper opened up new destinations e.g. Thailand (today ranked 10)

New airlines and routes open up new destinations in new regions e.g. Air China 1988. 2013 hawaiian airlines to NZ

Development of the car. 2013 40% of international travel by car.
More leisure time

Over time People are having longer paid holidays from work (on average three weeks per year are paid). People can travel further and for longer - increased European travel to Asia & pacific nations
Also people who are retired remain active for longer.
E.g. majority of international visitors to NZ +65 years (2013 - 2014 42,000 visitors)

Greater awareness of destinations

Advertising or television programmes (e.g. Travel Channel Sky) & Internet (over past 20 years)
People are more aware of how and where they can spend their free time - new destinations are discovered (esp in Asia, Pacific & India)
Countries open themselves to visitors

Countries relax visa restrictions - increases international tourist arrivals

E.g. China

Until the 1970s, the People’s Republic was effectively closed to Western visitors.

early 1980s, the student travel organisation STA sold the first “backpacker” trips to Beijing

2013 citizens of 45 countries, including the UK, are allowed to visit the capital for up to 72 hours

2014 - 57 million visitors to China (ranked 4th in world)
Technology / Social
Reasons for Temporal Patterns of Tourism
1950- 2013
Disposable incomes & development
Visa restrictions
Technology / Social
Media & advertising
Leisure time

Which factor has affected the
pattern the most?
Factors affecting people leaving their generating country

Economic reasons
Value of exchange rates
Cost of services e.g. health care
Standard of tourism services in country of origin
Personal incomes

Climate may encourage people to travel overseas

Holiday entitlements

Govt may restrict movement of people
Departure taxes

Factors affecting people's choice of destination

Supply of tourism services
Price of products in destination

Strong culture in destination
Time & accessibility


Favourable climate in destination

Helath and safety in destination . War?

The globalisation of business and the international
migration of people has stimulated international travel to all regions of the world & investment in tourism globally - especially Asia
e.g. Hilton hotel is a global brand
2013 14% travel for business

Why is there a concentration of Tourism arrivals in Europe?
Europe has a population of
over 700 million. This is the
main market for European
destinations. Aprox 75% of all
international travel is from within
a region.
Countries that belong to the European
Union (EU) have open boarders for their
residents - visas are not required & the
tourists have the freedom of movement
Many countries in Western Europe are some of the most developed nations in the world. The residents have high average disposable incomes and have the freedom to travel
The road, rail & air infrastucture in Europe makes travel within Europe very quick.

E.g. London to Paris on Eurostar takes 2 hours 16 mins

Low cost airlines like Ryan Air & Easy
Jet have made international travel affordable
The supply of accommodtion, attractions & hospitality are highly developed in this region
202 000 Hotels in EU (27)in 2011 (12million beds)
27 000 campsites (9.5 million places)
Short / Long term
Social Effects
of Tourism
S o C i a L i M p A C t S

Continued unrest - war & terror - in the Middle East and parts of Africa
have restricted the growth of tourism.

* 2016 - 15 African countries engaged in war (e.g. Somalia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan)

E.g. In the Middle East notable conflicts have included Iraq war, Afganistan and now Syria, making the region unsafe for travel.
E.g. Myanmar relaxed travel restrictions in 2012
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