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The Autonomic Nervous System

Structure and Function of the Autonomic Nervous System

Brandon Poe

on 7 February 2017

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Transcript of The Autonomic Nervous System

The Autonomic
Nervous System

Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Two Major Divisions
Fight or Flight
Photo credit: http://www.basecampexplorer.com/our_destinations/masai_mara/en
Rest and Digest
Adrenaline rushes into your blood stream.
You see a lion on the savannah
and your palms start to sweat.
and you start to think about where you can hide.
Your heart starts to race
Photo credit: http://www.bigblocks.co.uk/animals/lion/
When you're the king of the jungle
you can sit back and relax.
Let your body digest and absorb nutrients
SNS: Associated with the thoracic (and upper lumbar) spinal cord
PNS: Associated with the brain stem and sacral spinal cord
In the autonomic arc, emphasis is placed
on the motor output for two reasons
Many of the sensory receptors are the same for the somatic and autonomic systems. Touch and pain receptors in the skin or photoreceptors in the retina all send information to the autonomic nervous system.
The motor output for the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems is a large part of what differentiates the two systems
Efferent Connections
Sympathetic System (regular connections)
Sympathetic System (adrenal gland)
Parasympathetic System
preganglionic neuron in thoracolumbar spinal cord
preganglionic fiber is short
releases acetylcholine (ACh) onto ganglionic neuron
ganglion near the spinal cord (chain ganglia)
postganglionic fiber is long
releases norepinephrine (NE*) onto organ
preganglionic neuron in thoracolumbar spinal cord
preganglionic fiber is short
releases acetylcholine (ACh) onto adrenal medulla
no ganglion
no postganglionic fiber
releases epinephrine (epi) into blood stream
preganglionic neuron in brain stem or sacral spinal cord
preganglionic fiber is long
releases acetylcholine (ACh) onto ganglionic neuron
ganglion near the organ (terminal ganglia)
postganglionic fiber is short
releases acetylcholine (ACh) onto organ
An Example
The Sympathetic Response
One sympathetic neuron from the lateral horn of the thoracic spinal cord can send signals out that diverge to influence effectors (through a ganglionic connection) at many different levels. Through the adrenal medulla, the sympathetic response is universal because of epinephrine in the blood stream.
Drugs that influence autonomic function
Photo credit: http://blogs.abc.net.au/allinthemind/2008/05/nicotine-staine.html
Photo credit:
Adrenergic drugs
Photo credit: http://www.acpinternist.org/archives/2006/12/extra/drug.htm
Photo credit: http://www.preparationh.com/hemorrhoid_medications/ointment.asp
beta blockers
Photo credit:
What neurotransmitter is released at the neuromuscular junction?

A) acetylcholine
B) serotonin
C) nicotine
D) norepinephrine
Where is the cell body of a preganglionic sympathetic neuron located?

A. Dorsal Root Ganglion
B. Brain Stem
C. Thoracic Spinal Cord
D. Sacral Spinal Cord
What part of the autonomic nervous system is associated with cranial nerve IX?

A. Parasympathetic
B. Sensory
C. Sympathetic
D. Enteric
What sub-modality of taste is sensitive to the concentration of hydrogen ions?

A) salty
B) sweet
C) bitter
D) sour
Which layer of the eye includes an epithelial layer to absorb stray light?

A) Retina
B) Vascular Tunic
C) Fibrous Tunic
D) Neural Tunic
Which type of receptor cell can be responsible for transduction of sound stimuli?

A) mechanoreceptor
B) photoreceptor
C) nociceptor
D) chemoreceptor
What effect does the parasympathetic nervous system have on the heart?

A) Increase heart rate
B) Increase blood pressure
C) Decrease heart rate
D) Decrease blood pressure
What neurotransmitter causes the pupil of the eye to become wider (dilate)?

A) Serotonin
B) Acetylcholine
C) Norepinephrine
D) Dopamine
What fiber causes the adrenal medulla to release epinephrine?

A) Preganglionic Sympathetic
B) Preganglionic Parasympathetic
C) Postganglionic Sympathetic
D) Postganglionic Parasympathetic
Which cranial nerve carries information from hair cells?

A) Facial (VII)
B) Vestibulocochlear (VIII)
C) Olfactory (I)
D) Oculomotor (III)
Which layer of the retina is most interior?

A) Retinal ganglion cells
B) Inner synaptic layer
C) Bipolar cells
D) Photoreceptor inner segments
source: http://www.buzzfeed.com/jenlewis/if-disney-princesses-had-normal-size-eyes
All images from CNX Anatomy & Physiology. OpenStax College. Sept 1, 2015. http://cnx.org/contents/14fb4ad7-39a1-4eee-ab6e-3ef2482e3e22@7.28:1/Preface unless otherwise noted
Image source: http://xkcd.com/1075
*exceptions (may release ACh, but evidence is unclear):
1) sweat glands
2) blood vessels in skeletal muscle
3) external genitalia
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