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Psychology AS Revision PSYA1
Transcript of Psychology AS Revision PSYA1
Memory & Attachment
Clive Wearing - Chronic STM dysfunction. Highlights that the memory is structured in terms of encoding, retaining and retrieval. Also shows that STM is limited in capacity and duration.
Short term memory
Baddeley et al (1975) - speed and amount of short and long words.
Miller (1956) - Digit span 7 2
Bower & Winzenz (1969) The effects of LTM on the STM.
Peterson & Peterson - trigrams (PKV) experiment with prevention of rehearsal.
Murdock (1961) - Chunking letters into meaningful words (CAT) makes them harder to forget.
Conrad (1964) - acoustically similar and dissimilar letters (visually) STM relies on acoustic encoding.
Baddeley (1966) - acoustic and semantic similar and dissimilar words (verbally). STM relies on acoustic encoding.
Brandimonte (1992) if acoustic encoding is prevented then visual encoding is used.
Long Term Memory
Bahrick et al (1975) study into the existence of VLTM by showing photos from a high school year book.
Baddeley (1966) the effects of acoustic and semantic encoding in LTM
Models of Memory
Multi-store memory model
Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968
Key features of the multi-store memory model
States that there is a flow of information through a set of stages
There are capacity and duration limitations at each stage
Transfer of information between stages may require re-coding
Sensory information enters the sensory memory and is lost through decay. If paid attention to it will be transferred to the STM
Information is encoded acoustically in the STM
Memory traces are lost through displacement or decay unless rehearsal takes place
Rehearsal moves information from the STM to the LTM through semantic encoding. Information is lost through retrieval failure or interference.
Strengths of the MSM
Clear distinction between STM and LTM in terms of capacity, encoding and duration
Laboratory experiments have confirmed that there are separate STM and LTM stores (Glanzer & Cunitz 1966). Immediate and delayed recall of word list where participants remembered fist and last words in list more so than the middle ones.
Weaknesses of MSM
Ignores strategies to remember and improve recall
Does not account for the fact that some things are easier to remember than others
Focuses too much on structure and not the processes involved
Rehearsal can be done subconsciously
The working memory model
Baddeley & Hitch 1974
The Central executive - controls attention and planning of where information goes. Limited in capacity
The Phonological loop - The inner ear and inner voice allows storage of acoustically encoded items for a short period of time.
The Visuo-spatial scratchpad - stores visual and spatial information (the inner eye)
In 2000, Baddeley proposed an additional component - The episodic buffer. This binds together information from different sources into chunks or episodes
Strengths of the WMM
Explains how we are able to do 2 tasks at once
Evidence to support the phonological loop (Baddeley & Brandimonte)
Evidence to support the visuo-spatial scratchpad (Baddeley and the F experiment).
Weaknesses of the WMM
Little known about the central executive
Eye witness testimony
Loftus (1979) - weapon focus
Yuille & Cutshall (1986) - Those closest to a real-life event provided the most detail
Christianson & Hubinette (1993) - Bank workers in real life robberies were better at recall than bystanders.
Cohen (1993) - schemas reconstruct memories to fit in with what we already know about a situation.
Brewer & Treyens - people are more likely to recall items that fit with a schema and recalled items that were not there.
Yarmey & Jones (1983) - children are unreliable witnesses
Koriat et al (2001) - children are inferior to adults in terms of how much a they can remember
Geiselman & Padilla (1988) - children are less accurate than adults
Ceci & Bruck (1993) - children have a lack of schemas
Thomson (1988) children's EWT suffers more as time goes on.
Ceci & Bruck (1993) Factors affecting EWT in children:
Over encouragement to remember
Loftus and Palmer (1974) - car accident film and different forms of wording
Consequences of testimony
Foster et al (1994) - Laboratory experiments into EWT lack validity as there are no consequences to their testimony.
Loftus et al (1978) - Yield (give way), stop sign test and misleading questions
Geiselman et al (1985) - tested the effectiveness of the cognitive interview
Fisher et al (1989) - 47% improvement in information gained.
Holliday (2003) - Cognitive interview effective with children.
Schaffer & Emerson (1964) - feeding is not the sole reason for attachment.
The evolutionary approach
Bowlby (1969) - the need to be attached is innate, attachment is a biological process and takes place during a critical period or not at all. Attachment plays a role in later development.
Lorenz (1952) - Imprinting
Minnesota longitudinal study (1999) - children and attachment type behaviour
Hazan & Shaver (1989) - attachment experineces on adult relationships (love quiz)
Rutter et al (1998) - sensitive period not critical period
Types of attachment
Ainsworth (1970) - Strange situation
Lamb (1977) - Children can be securely attached to the mother but insecurely attached to the father.
Kagan (1982) - Temperament hypothesis - some children are better at dealing with stress than others
Ainsworth (1974) - Caregiver sensitivity - responsiveness of caregiver
Cross cultural variations
Takahashi (1990) - Japanese children and attachment
Ijzendoorn & Kroonenberg (1988) - attachment types in different countries
Grossmann & Grossmann (1991) - German children as insecurely attached by cultural differences in up bringing.
Thomas (1998) argues against monotropy
Schaffer & Enerson (1964) - Multiple attachments, preference to mother (tribal communities)
Bowlby (1944) - 44 thieves
Robertson & Robertson (1971) - Separation of caregiver, substitute will prevent deprivation
Skeels & Dye (1939) - Institutionalised children raised by nurses had better IQ scores
Rutter (1976) - Isle of Wight boys
Hodges & Tizard (1989) - early privation on social and emotional development (ophan children)
Rutter et al (1998) Romanian orphans
Koluchova (1976) - Czech twins
Curtis (1977) - Genie
Reactive attachment disorder
Children who develop the lack of ability to give or receive affection due to a disruption in the attachment process. Other symptoms included cruelty to animals, eye contact issues, lying, stealing, control issues and inability to maintain friendships
Sammons et al (2003) - children who spend 20+ hours in nurseries display more antisocial behaviour. Increased further at 40+ hours.
NICHD - aggressive behaviour in group care than 1-2-1 care of childminders
EPPE (Sylva et al (2003) - social development and the impact of pre-school.
Clarke-Steward et al (1994) - group based care and peer relations
Field (1991) - Quality of day care, more friends and physical affection.
Campbell et al (2001) - Age entering childcare and benefit on social development.