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Chapter 6: Anatomy and Physiology

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on 18 April 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 6: Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology
8. Neuralgia: Nerve pain
a. Caused by inflammation, pressure, toxins, and other diseases
b. Tx: eliminate cause
9. Paralysis: loss of function/sensation
a. Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side of the body caused by tumor, injury, or CVA
b. Paraplegia: paralysis in lower extremities caused by spinal injury
c. Quadriplegia: paralysis of the arms, legs, and body part below spinal injury

5. Hydrocephalus:
a. Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in ventricles
b. Etiology: congenital
c. Tx: Surgical implantation of a shunt
a. Inflammation of meninges
b. Etiology: bacterial, viral, fungal, or toxins
c. Tx: antibiotics

b. Connective tissue cont..
Soft connective tissue
aa. Adipose or fatty tissue
bb. Fibrous connective tissue (ligaments and tendons)
Hard connective tissue
aa. Cartilage
bb. Bone: aka. osseous tissue
Blood and lymph
classified as liquid connective tissue or vascular tissue

1. Breast tumors
a. Malignant or benign
b. Early detection important
(1) BSE every month at the end of menstruation, or scheduled day after menopause
(2) Mammograms and ultrasonograpy can often detect tumors or masses up to 2 years before tumors are felt

E. Disease and Abnormal Conditions

c. Three layers
(1) Endometrium – innermost layer of the uterus that deteriorates and causes the bleeding known as menstruation
(2) Myometrium – middle muscular layer of the uterus
(3) Perimetrium: outer layer

D. Female Reproductive System (4)

1. Ovaries:
a. Female gonads or sex glands
b. Follicles – small sacks in ovaries
c. Ovaries produce hormones that produce secondary sexual characteristics

D. Female Reproductive System

1. Epididymitis: inflammation of epididymis
2. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testes
3. Prostatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia
a. Enlargement of prostate
b. Common in men over age 50
4. Testicular cancer
a. Frequently occurs age 20-35
b. Orchiectomy – surgical removal of the testes

C. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

8. Cowper’s glands
a. Two small glands below prostate
b. Connects to urethra
c. Also secretes alkaline fluid
(1) Decrease acidity
(2) Provide a more favorable environment for sperm

B. Male Reproductive System (5)

4. Seminal vesicles:
a. Pouchlike tubes
b. Produce a thick, yellow fluid rich in sugar to nourish the sperm
5. Ejaculatory ducts:
a. Two short tubes formed by the union of the vas deferens and seminal vesicles
b. Carry semen through prostate gland

B. Male Reproductive System (3)

2. Epididymis:
a. Located above testes
b. Stores the sperm while they mature and become motile
3. Vas deferens:
a. Act as passageway and as a temporary storage area for sperm
b. Cut during a vasectomy (sterilization)

B. Male Reproductive System (2)

1. Testes
a. male gonads or sex glands
b. Produce sperm
c. The lower temperature in the scrotum is essential for the production of sperm
d. Produce testosterone

B. Male Reproductive System

1. Functions to produce new life
2. Anatomical parts differ but systems have similar organs
a. Gonads or sex glands
b. Ducts or tubes
c. Accessory organs

A. Introduction

1. Temporary endocrine gland produced during pregnancy
a. Provides nutrition for developing infant
b. Promotes lactation/production of milk
3. Placenta expelled after the birth of an infant is called afterbirth

L. Placenta

1. Mass of muscle in upper part of chest
2. Thymus activates cells in the immune system early in life
3. Atrophies or wastes away during puberty

J. Thymus

1. Female sex glands
2. One on each side of uterus
3. Secrete hormones that regulate menstruation and secondary sexual characteristics

H. Ovaries

4. Diabetes mellitus
a. Decreased secretion of insulin
b. Two types
(1) Type 1 or Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) – occurs early in life
(2) Type 2 or Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) – mature onset form occurs in obese adults

G. Pancreas (2)

3. Diseases of adrenal glands
a. Addison’s disease: increase potassium in blood
b. Cushing’s disease:
(1) Symptoms – hyperglycemia, hypertension, muscle weakness “moon” face, and obesity
(2) Tx – hormone therapy

F. Adrenal Glands (2)

1. Adrenal glands frequently called the “suprarenal” glands because one is located above each kidney
2. Each gland has two parts
a. Cortex
b. Medulla

F. Adrenal Glands

1. Four small glands behind thyroid
2. Hormone (parathormone) regulates amount of calcium in the blood
Disorders of parathyroid glands
a. Hyperparathyroidism:
(1) Results in hypercalcemia which leads to renal calculi
(2) Removal of tumor usually results in normal parathyroid function

E. Parathyroid Glands

c. Diabetes insipidus: caused by a decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone
d. Dwarfism:
(1) undersecretion of somatotropin
(2) sm. Body size and short extremities
(3) mental development is normal

C. Pituitary Gland (2)

1. Hormones are chemical messengers that are secreted directly into the bloodstream
2. Functions:
a. Regulate growth
b. Regulate metabolism
c. Maintain chemical balance

B. Hormones

6. Uremia: Toxic condition that occurs when the kidneys fail and urinary waste products are present in bloodstream
7. Urethritis:
a. Inflammation of the urethra
b. Bacteria, viruses, or chemicals such as bubble bath solutions can cause urethritis

H. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (3)

4. Renal calculus or urinary calculus
a. Kidney stone
b. Lithotripsy: procedure used to crush the stone with shock waves
5. Renal failure: kidneys stop functioning

H. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (2)

1. Tube that carries urine from bladder to the outside

2. Different in males and females
a. Females: Tube 1 ½” long
b. Males: S-shaped 8” long

E. Urethra

1. Mucous membrane lining of the bladder is arranged in a series of folds called rugae
2. Three layers of visceral (smooth) muscle form the walls
3. Stores urine received from ureters

D. Bladder

b. Bowman’s capsule: C-shaped structure that surrounds glomerulus
(1) Start of convoluted tubules
(2) As filtered materials pass through the convoluted tubules, substances needed by the body are reabsorbed

B. Kidneys (4)

1. Protected by the ribs and a heavy cushion of fat
2. Two main sections
a. Cortex: outer section contains most of the nephrons
b. Medulla: contains most of the collecting tubules

B. Kidneys

UNIT 6:12


10. Hernia: Occurs when an internal organ pushes through a weakened area or natural opening in a body wall
a. Hiatal - esophagus
b. Inguinal – lower abdomen
11. Pancreatitis: occurs when the pancreatic enzymes begin to digest the pancreas

K. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (5)

9. Hepatitis: Viral inflammation of the liver
a. Type A (HAV) transmitted in food or water
b. Vaccine available to prevent HAV
c. Type B (HBV) transmitted by blood
d. Vaccine available and recommended for all health workers
e. Other strains C, D, & E

K. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (4)

3. Cirrhosis: destruction of liver cells accompanied by the formation of fibrous connective and scar tissue
4. Constipation:
a. Excessive reabsorption of water
b. Chronic, long term laxative use
5. Diarrhea: watery stool

K. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (2)

1. Organ behind the stomach that produces enzymes and the hormone insulin
2. Pancreatic enzymes
amylase or amylopsin
break down sugars
Trypsin and chymotrypsin
break down protein
Lipase or steapsin
act on fats
regulates glucose (blood sugar)

J. Pancreas

1. Attaches to liver
2. Stores bile
3. Bile needed to emulsify (break down) fat

I. Gallbladder

3. Sections of the large intestine
a. Cecum: first section of the lg. intestine is the; contains vermiform appendix
b. Colon: four parts
(1) Ascending (3) Descending
(2) Transverse (4) Sigmoid
c. Rectum: storage area for indigestibles

G. Large Intestine (2)

Function is to emulsify fats and make them water soluble
Pancreatic juice
a. Contains enzymes that complete digestion
Amylase or amylopsin
act on sugars
Trypsin and chymotrypsin
= pro
Lipase or steapsin
= fats

F. Small Intestine (3)

1. 20 feet long
2. Receives food in form of chyme
3. Three sections
a. Duodenum
b. Jejunum
c. Ileum

F. Small Intestine

1. Mucous membrane lining contains folds called rugae
2. Cardiac sphincter: between esophagus and stomach
3. Pyloric sphincter: between stomach and sm. Intestine keeps food in the stomach

E. Stomach

1. Muscular tube posterior to trachea
2. Peristalsis: wavelike movement of muscles that moves food

D. Esophagus

6. Salivary glands
a. 3 pairs
(1) Parotid
(2) Sublingual
(3) Submandibular
b. Salivary amylase: begins chemical breakdown of carbohydrates

B. Mouth (3)

1. Buccal or oral cavity
2. Teeth: break down food physically process called mastication
3. Tongue: contains taste receptors that allow person to taste sweet, salt, sour, and bitter sensations

B. Mouth

1. Includes the alimentary canal and accessory organs
2. Alimentary canal: long muscular tube that begins at the mouth and ends at the anus
3. Accessory organs: saliva glands, tongue, teeth, liver, gallbladder and pancreas

A. Introduction

14. Upper respiratory infection (URI)
a. Inflammation of mucous membrane lining upper respiratory tract
b. Caused by viruses and highly contagious
c. No cure & minimal treatment

L. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (7)

9. Pleurisy:
a. inflammation of pleura or membranes of the lungs
b. Tx: Thoracentesis - withdrawal of fluid through a needle
10. Pneumonia: inflammation or infection of the lungs characterized by exudate in the alveoli

L. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (5)

6. Influenza: highly contagious viral infection of the upper respiratory system
7. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the larynx and vocal cords
8. Lung cancer
a. Leading cause of cancer death in men and women
b. No symptoms in early stages
c. Prognosis usually poor

L. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (4)

3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
a. Any chronic lung disease that obstructs airways
b. Asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and tuberculosis lead to COPD

L. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (2)

1. Asthma: respiratory disorder usually caused by a sensitivity to an allergen
2. Bronchitis:
a. inflammation of the bronchi and bronchial tubes
b. Acute bronchitis
c. Chronic bronchitis

L. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

3. Expiration
a. Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
b. Air is forced out of lungs
4. Process of respiration is controlled by the respiratory center in the medulla oblongata of the brain
5. Increased amount of CO2 in blood causes center to increase rate of respirations

J. Ventilation (2)

1. Right lung has three sections, Left lung has two
2. Pleura: membrane or sac enclosing each lung
a. Two layers of the pleura
(1) Visceral pleura: attached to surface of lung
(2) Parietal pleura: attach to chest wall

I. Lungs

1. Trachea branches into two tubes called bronchi, in order to carry air to both lungs
2. In the lungs bronchi divide into bronchioles
3. Eventually end in air sacs called alveoli

G. Bronchi

1. Carries air between the pharynx and bronchi
2. Series of C-shaped cartilage, which are open on the posterior surface, help keep the trachea open

F. Trachea

1. As air leaves nose it enters pharynx
2. Three sections
a. Nasopharynx: Pharyngeal tonsils located here
b. Oropharynx:
c. Laryngopharynx: branches off into the trachea and the esophagus

D. Pharynx

4. Olfactory receptors

5. Nasolacrimal ducts: drain tears from the eye into the nose to provide additional moisture for the air

B. Nose (2)

1. Nostrils (nares)
2. Nasal septum: divides the nose into two hollow spaces called nasal cavities
3. Nasal cavities:
a. Lined with mucous membrane and have a rich blood supply
b. Cilia: tiny hairlike structure trap germs

B. Nose

1. Body has only four to six minute supply of oxygen
2. Parts include:
a. Nose e. Bronchi
b. Pharynx f. Alveoli
c. Larynx g. Lungs
d. Trachea

A. Introduction

4. Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen
5. Tonsillitis:
a. Inflammation/infection of tonsils
b. Usually involves the pharyngeal (adenoid) and palatine tonsils

G. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (2)

c. Thymus gland produces antibodies and manufactures lymphocytes during early childhood
d. Function taken over by lymph nodes after it atrophies

F. Lymph Tissue (4)

3. Spleen
a. Organ on the left side dorsal to stomach
b. Produces leukocytes and antibodies
c. Stores erythrocytes
4. Thymus
a. Lymph tissue in center of upper chest
b. Atrophies after puberty

F. Lymph Tissue (3)

1. Three examples of lymph tissue
a. Tonsils
b. Spleen
c. Thymus
2. Tonsils
a. Masses of lymph tissue that filter interstitial fluid

F. Lymph Tissue

1. Vessels drain into ducts
2. Right lymphatic duct
a. Short tube that receives purified lymph from the right side of the head, neck, chest, and arm
b. Empties into R. subclavian vein

E. Lymph Ducts

4. Contractions of skeletal muscles cause lymph to flow through lymphatic vessels
5. Vessels pass through lymph nodes
6. Lacteals: special lymphatic capillaries pick up digested fats

C. Lymphatic Vessels (2)

1. Thin watery fluid that is composed of intercellular fluid
2. Composed of water, digested nutrients, hormones, oxygen, carbon dioxide…
3. When fluid enters lymphatic system, becomes known as lymph

B. Lymph

A. Introduction

11. Phlebitis
a. Inflammation of a vein
b. Thrombophlebitis is clot forms
12. Vericose veins
a. Dilated, swollen veins that have lost elasticity and cause a stasis or decreases blood flow
b. Result from pregnancy or long sitting

F. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (7)

5. Congestive heart failure: heart does not beat adequately to supply blood needs of the body
Embolus: Foreign substance circulating in blood stream
Hemophilia: Occurs almost exclusively in males and in which the blood is unable to clot

F. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (4)

2. Aneurysm
a. Ballooning out or saclike formation on wall of artery
b. If aneurysm ruptures hemorrhage occurs
3. Arteriosclerosis
a. Thickening of artery walls
b. Results in loss of elasticity

F. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (2)

1. Anemia
a. Inadequate number of erythrocytes
b. Acute blood loss anemia
c. Iron deficiency anemia
d. Aplastic anemia – result of injury or destruction of bone marrow
e. Pernicious anemia
f. Sickle cell anemia – chronic, inherited anemia that occurs exclusively in African Americans

F. Disease and Abnormal Conditions

(3) 5 types of leukocytes
aa. Neutrophils - destroy bacteria
bb. Eosinophils - remove toxins
cc. Basophils - produce histamine
dd. Monocytes - destroy bacteria
ee. Lymphocytes - provide immunity for the body by developing antibodies and protect against the formation of cancer

E. Blood Composition (4)

4. Blood cells
a. Three main kinds
(1) Erythrocytes
(2) Leukocytes
(3) Thrombocytes
b. Erythrocytes: red blood cells
(1) Produced in red bone marrow
(2) 4.5-5.5 million/cubic millimeter blood

E. Blood Composition (2)

4. Capillaries
a. Connect arterioles with venules
b. Have thin walls that contain only one layer of cells
c. Allow oxygen and nutrients to pass through to the cells
d. Co2 & metabolic waste allowed to enter in

D. Blood Vessels (3)

3. Veins
a. Carry blood back to heart
b. Venules: smallest branches of veins
c. Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
(1) Two largest veins
(2) Both drain into R. atrium
d. Contain valves that keep blood from flowing in a backward direction

D. Blood Vessels (2)

1. Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms and can be mild to life threatening
2. Treatment depends on type/severity
a. Defibrillator
b. Pacemaker
(1) Fixed pacemaker: predetermined rate
(2) Demand pacemaker: deliver impulses only when heart’s own conduction system is not responding properly

C. Arrhythmias

5. Cardiac cycle:
a. R. atrium to R. Ventricle
b. R. ventricle to lung via pulmonary artery
c. Pulmonary vein to L. atrium
d. L. atrium to L. ventricle
e. L. ventricle to body via aorta
f. While atria are filling systole begins and the ventricle contract

A. Heart (4)

4. Valves:
a. Tricuspid valve – separates R. atrium and R. Ventricle. Prevents blood from flowing back into R. atrium
b. Pulmonary valve – located between R. ventricle and pulmonary artery
c. Mitral valve – L. atrium & L. ventricle prevents blood flow back to L. atrium
d. Aortic valve – L. ventricle and aorta

A. Heart (3)

1. Made of three layers
a. Endocardium: Lines inside of heart
b. Myocardium: The muscle layer
c. Pericardium: Double layered membrane covers the outside of heart
2. Septum
a. Separates heart into R & L sides
b. Upper part called interatrial septum
c. Lower part called interventricular septum

A. Heart

a. Tongue is mass of muscle tissue with projections called papillae
b. Four main tastes
(1) Sweet and salty tastes at tip of tongue
(2) Sour onsides
(3) Bitter on back

D. Other Senses

b. Meniere’s disease: collection of fluid in inner ear
c. Otitis externa: inflammation of external auditory canal
(1) viral or bacterial
(2) Swimmer’s ear is one form caused by swimming in contaminated water

B. Ear cont.. (5)

6. Diseases and abnormal conditions of ear
a. Hearing loss
(1) Conduction loss: caused by wax (cerum) plug, foreign body obstruction, otosclerosis, or ruptured tympanic membrane
(2) Sensory loss: damage to inner ear

B. Ear cont.. (4)

b. Cochlea:
(1) shaped like a snails shell
(2) receptor for sound waves in the inner ear (organ of Corti)
c. Semicircular canals: impulses from semicircular canal sent to the cerebellum of brain help to maintain our sense of balance and equilibrium

B. Ear cont.. (3)

4. Middle ear
a. Contains 3 bones: malleus, incus, stapes
b. Eustacian tube: Tube that connects the middle ear to the pharynx
5. Inner ear
a. Vestibule
b. Cochlea: receptor for sound waves in the inner ear

B. Ear cont.. (2)

g. Myopia: nearsightedness; Radial keratotomy (RK) can correct myopia and eliminate need for corrective lenses
h. Presbyopia: Farsighted due to loss of elasticity in lens
I. Strabismus: cross eyed

A. Eye cont.. (9)

d. Conjunctivitis: Pink eye
(1) Contagious inflammation of the conjunctiva
(2) Usually caused by bacteria or virus
e. Glaucoma: Increase amt of aqueous humor
f. Hyperopia: Farsightedness

A. Eye cont.. (8)

5. Diseases and abnormal conditions of eye
a. Amblyopia: Lazy eye
b. Astigmatism: abnormal curvature
c. Cataract: Cloudy or opaque lens
(1) Symptoms: Blurred vision and halos; gradual loss of vision
(2) Tx: Surgery

A. Eye cont.. (7)

3. Other special structures
a. Lens: Circular structure located behind the pupil, refracts light rays
b. Aqueous humor: Clear watery fluid fills the space between the cornea and iris
c. Vitreous humor: maintains shape of eyeball
d. Series of muscles provide movement

A. Eye cont.. (5)

b. Choroid coat
(1) Middle layer
(2) Interlaced with many blood vessels that nourish the eyes
(3) Pupil: allows light to enter
(4) Iris: colored portion of the eye

A. Eye cont.. (3)

1. Eye is well protected
a. Bony socket
b. Eye lids and lashes
c. Lacrimal glands: produce tears to moisten and cleanse the eye
d. Conjunctiva: mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the front of the eye

A. Eye

UNIT 6:7


1. Cerebral Palsy: caused by brain damage that leads to a disturbance in voluntary muscle action
2. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
a. Stroke
b. Symptoms common with stroke
(1) Vertigo: dizziness
(2) Hemiplegia: paralysis on one side

G. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

1. Made of all the nerves
a. Cranial nerves 12 pairs
b. Spinal nerves
(1) 31 pairs
(2) Mixed nerves both sensory and motor

F. Peripheral Nervous System

3. Meninges
a. Cover and protect the brain and spinal cord
b. Duramater: thick tough outer layer
c. Arachnoid membrane: middle layer
d. Pia mater: Innermost layer covering the brain and spinal cord

E. Central Nervous System cont..(5)

2. Spinal Cord
a. Starts at medulla oblongata
b. Ends at first or second vertebra
c. Carries sensory (afferent) messages to brain
d. Carries motor (efferent) messages from the brain to the muscle nerves

E. Central Nervous System cont..(4)

d. Midbrain: conducts impulses between brain parts and for certain eye and auditory reflexes
e. Pons: certain reflex actions including chewing, tasting, production of saliva
f. Medula oblongata: regulates heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing, and blood pressure

E. Central Nervous System cont..(3)

c. Diencephalon: contains thalamus and hypothalamus
(1) Thalamus – directs impulses to cerebrum
(2) Hypothalmus – regulates and controls the autonomic nervous system

E. Central Nervous System cont..(2)

1. Brain
a. Cerebrum: reasoning, thought, memory, speech, and voluntary body movement
b. Cerebellum: muscle coordination, balance, posture, and muscle tone

E. Central Nervous System

1. Central nervous system (CNS): consist of brain and spinal cord
2. Peripheral nervous system
a. Made of nerves
b. Autonomic nervous system: controls involuntary body functions

D. Divisions of the Nervous System

1. Combination of many nerve fibers located outside the brain and spinal cord
2. Afferent or sensory nerves: carry messages from the body to the brain
3. Efferent or motor nerves: carry messages from brain and spinal cord to muscles
4. Associative or internuncial nerves carry both sensory and motor messages

C. Nerves

c. Nerve fibers cont..
(1) Dendrites: carry impulses toward the cell body
(2) Axon: single nerve fiber carries impulses away from the cell body
(3) Synapse: space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of others

B. Neuron cont..(2)

1. Nerve cell
2. Basic structural unit of the nervous system
3. Parts of neuron
a. Cell body
b. Nucleus
c. Nerve fibers

B. Neuron

1. Coordinates all of the body’s activities
2. Allows body to respond and adapt to changes that occur both inside and outside the body

A. Introduction

UNIT 6:6


1. Fibromyalgia: chronic widespread pain in specific muscle sites
2. Muscular dystrophy: group of inherited diseases leads to a chronic progressive muscle atrophy ( muscles shrinks in size and loose strength)
3. Myasthenia gravis: chronic condition in which nerve impulses are not transmitted properly to the muscles

H. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

1. Muscles are partially contracted at all times even though not in use
2. Loss of muscle tone
a. When muscles are not used for a long period of time they can atrophy or waste away
b. Can also result in contracture. Foot drop is a common contracture

G. Muscle Tone

4. Pectoralis major: muscle on the upper chest that adducts and flexes the upper arm
5. Quadriceps femoris: muscle on front of the thigh that extends the knee
6. Rectus abdominus: Muscle that extends from the ribs to the pubis and compresses the abdomen

F. Major Muscles cont..(2)

1. Intercostal muscles: important for breathing
2. Trapezius: muscle on the upper back and neck that extends the head and moves the shoulders
3. Triceps brachii: muscle on the upper arm that extends elbow

F. Major Muscles

1. Tendon: connects muscle to bone
2. Fascia: Tough sheet like membrane covers and protects tissue
3. Origin and insertion:
a. Origin- end that does not move (proximal end)
b. Insertion- end that moves when muscle contracts (distal end)

D. Methods of Attachment

1. Cardiac: form walls of heart; involuntary function without conscious thought or control
2. Viseral or smooth: internal organs; involuntary
3. Skeletal: attach to bone; voluntary- person has control over their action

B. Muscle Types

UNIT 6:5


8. Ruptured disk: herniated or slipped disk
Abnormal spinal curvatures
a. Kyphosis: “hunchback”
b. Scoliosis: side to side or lateral curvature of spine
c. Lordosis: “swayback”

N. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (4)

1. Arthritis: inflammation of the joints
2. Bursitis: inflammation of small fluid filled sacs surrounding joints
3. Fracture: break in a bone (Fx)
a. Greenstick: incomplete break
b. Simple: complete break
c. Compound: bone ruptures through skin

N. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

Areas where two or more bones join together
Ligaments: connect bone to bone
3. Three types of joints
a. Diarthroses: freely movable (hip)
b. Amphiarthroses: slightly movable (rib)
c. Synarthroses: Immovable (skull)

M. Joints

1. Femur: thigh bones
2. Patella: kneecap
3. Tibia: medial lower leg bone
4. Fibula: lateral low leg bone
5. Tarsals: 7 ankle bones, calcaneous=heel
6. Metatarsals: 5 foot bones
7. Phalanges: 14 bones of the toes

L. Leg Bones

1. Humerus: upper arm bone
2. Radius: Lower arm bone thumb side
3. Ulna: little finger side contains projection called the olecranon process forming elbow
4. Carpals: 8 wrist bones
5. Metacarpals: 5 bones form palm
6. Phalanges: 14 bones of thumb and finger

J. Bones of the Arm

1. Two clavicles or collarbones

2. Two scapulas (scapulae) shoulder bones

3. Scapula provides for attachment of upper arm bone

I. Shoulder or Pectoral Girdle

1. Breastbone
2. 3 main parts
a. Manubrium
b. Gladiolus
c. Xiphoid process

H. Sternum

1. Spinal column made of 26 bones
2. Main sections:
a. Cervical- 7 neck vertebrae
b. Thoracic- 12 back of chest
c. Lumbar- 5 vertebrae by waist
d. Sacrum- 1 lg. back of pelvis
e. Coccynx- 1 fused aka tailbone
3. Intervertebral disks: shock absorbers

F. Vertebrae

4. Sutures: areas where cranial bones have joined together
5. Sinuses
a. Air spaces
b. Provide strength with less weight
6. Foramina: openings in bone that allow nerves and blood vessels to enter or leave the bone

E. Skull cont..(3)

Cranial and facial bones
a. Made of eight bones
(1) Frontal (4) Occipital
(2) Parietal (5) Ethmoid
(3) Temporal (6) Sphenoid
b. Fontanels- spaces or soft spots in the cranium that allow for the enlargement of the skull as brain growth occurs

E. Skull

1. Axial Skeleton:
a. Forms main trunk of body
b. Skull, spine, ribs, and sternum
2. Appendicular skeleton:
a. Forms extremities (arms and legs)
b. shoulder girdle, arm bones pelvic girdle leg bones

D. Skeletal Sections

1. Bones of extremities (arms/legs)
2. Diaphysis: long shaft
3. Epiphysis: ends
4. Medullary canal: cavity with yellow marrow
5. Yellow Marrow: mainly fat cells

C. Parts of Long Bones

1. Skeletal system is composed of bones

2. 206 bones in human body

A. Introduction

UNIT 6:4


Verrucae or warts
a. Viral skin infection
b. Elevated surface on skin
c. Tx: liquid nitrogen, chemicals, or laser

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (8)

a. Chronic noncontagious inherited disease
b. Treatment:
(1) no cure
(2) cortisone ointment or UV light

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (6)

a. Highly contagious skin infection
b. Etiology: streptococci or staphylococci infection
c. Tx: wash with soap and H2O; topical and oral antibiotics

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (5)

a. Noncontagious inflammatory condition
b. Causes: diet, cosmetics, soaps, medications or emotional stress
c. Tx: corticosteroids

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (4)

Acne vulgaris
a. Inflammation of sebaceous gland
b. Etiology unknown
c. Symptoms:
(1) Papules, pustules, and blackheads
(2) Blocked hair follicle
d. Tx: Frequent washing; UV light

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions

flat spots; Ex. freckles
firm raised areas seen in pimples
blisters or fluid filled sacs
pus filled sacs
itchy, elevated, irregular shape
deep loss of skin

G. Skin Eruptions

absence of color pigments
3. Abnormal colors
reddish color caused by burns or blood vessel congestion
yellowish discoloration. Indicates presence of bile in blood
bluish discoloration low O2
d. Gray/brown: chronic poisoning

F. Skin Color cont.. (2)

1. Pigmentation
brownish black pigment
(1) Leads to a black, brown, or yellow skin tint depending on racial origin
(2) Sm. concentrated areas of melanin pigment form freckles
yellowish-red pigment

F. Skin Color

has tissues for temporary storage of fat, glucose, water, vitamins and salts
a. Skin helps produce vitamin D
b. Uses ultraviolet rays to form initial molecule of vit. D that matures in liver

E. Functions of Integumentary System cont.. (2)

a. Consists of root, follicle, and hair shaft
b. Alopecia: baldness; permanent loss of hair on the scalp
a. Protect from injury
b. Made of dead keratinized epidermal epithelial cells packed closely together

D. Other Parts of Integumentary System

Sudoriferous glands:
Sweat glands
Sebaceous glands
a. Oil glands
b. Usually open into hair follicle
c. Produce oil called sebum
(1) Keeps hair from becoming dry and brittle
(2) Antibacterial and antifungal secretions helps prevent infections

C. Glands of the Skin

a. Also called dorium or true skin
b. Contains blood vessels, nerves, sweat glands, and hair follicles
c. Papillae help form fingerprints and footprints

B. Layers of the Skin cont.. (2)

Skin is a membrane, organ and system
2. Membrane because it covers the body
3. Organ because it contains several tissues
4. System because it has organs and other parts working together

A. Introduction

1. Abdominal cavity separated into regions due to size
3. Regions
a. Epigastric d. Hypochondriac
b. Umbilical e. Lumbar
c. Pelvic f. Iliac or inguinal

C. Abdominal Regions

Abdominal or abdomino-pelvic cavity
(1) Upper abdominal cavity: stomach, small intestine, most large intestine appendix, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen
Lower abdominal or pelvic cavity
: contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and last part of large intestine

B. Body Cavities cont.. (3)

1. Spaces within the body that contain vital organs
Dorsal or posterior cavity
a. One long continuous cavity on back of the body
b. Two sections
Cranial cavity
: contains the brain
Spinal cavity
: contains spinal cord

B. Body Cavities

Proximal and distal
a. Describe relationship of extremities to the trunk
Close to point of reference
: Away from point of reference

A. Body Planes cont.. (3)

Midsagittal or median plane
a. Divides body into right and left side
b. Medial: close to midline
c. Lateral: away from the midline
Frontal or coronal plane
a. Divides body into front and back
b. Ventral or anterior: front of the plane
c. Dorsal or posterior: back of the plane

A. Body Planes cont.. (2)

UNIT 6:2


Two or more tissues join together for a specific function
2. Examples:
a. heart
b. stomach
c. lungs

E. Organs

3. 4 Tissue groups
a. Epithelial tissue: lines the intestinal and respiratory tracts and forms body glands
b. Connective tissue: supporting fabric of organs and other body parts

D. Tissues cont.. (2)

1. Cells of same type joining together for a common purpose
2. 60-99% water
a. Dehydration: insufficient amount of tissue fluid
b. Edema: swelling, or excess amount of tissue fluid

D. Tissues

c. Ovum and sperm form zygote
(1) Zygote becomes a mass of cells called blastocyst
(2) Blastocysts contain embryonic stem cells
(3) Stem cells have the ability to transform themselves into any of the body’s specialized cells

C. Cells cont…(12)

a. Asexual reproduction
b. Divide into two identical cells
c. Nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord do not reproduce after birth

C. Cells cont…(10)

4. Basic parts of cells cont..
Endoplasmic reticulum
(1) Tubular structures in cytoplasm
(2) Allows for transport of material in and out of cell
(3) Rough endoplasmic reticulum
(4) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

C. Cells cont…(8)

4. Basic parts of cells cont..
(1) Rod shaped organelles located throughout cytoplasm
(2) Called powerhouse of the cell
(3) Produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

C. Cells cont…(6)

4. Basic parts of cells cont..
(1) Located in cytoplasm near nucleus
(2) Contains two centrioles important in reproduction
(3) Centrioles separate during mitosis

C. Cells cont… (5)

4. Basic parts of cells cont..
: Controls many cell activities, including reproduction
(1) Located inside of the nucleus
(2) Important in cell reproduction
(3) Manufactures ribosomes

C. Cells cont… (3)

Basic unit of a structure

2. Microscopic organisms that carry on all functions of life
a. Take in food an oxygen
b. Produce heat and energy
c. Eliminate waste
3. Vary in shape and size and perform many different functions

C. Cells

1. Basic substance of all life

2. Makes up all living things

3. Made of ordinary elements

B. Protoplasm

: study of the form and structure of an organism
: study of the processes of living organisms, or why and how they work
: study of how disease occurs and response of the body to disease process

A. Introduction

UNIT 6:1


7. Syphilis
a. Caused by bacteria called spirochete
b. Stage 1 symptoms: painless chancre or sore appears
Trichomonas vaginalis:
a. Caused by parasitic protozoa
b. White or yellow foul smelling discharge

F. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (4)

5. Herpes: STD caused by a virus that creates fluid filled vesicles that rupture and form painful ulcers
Pubic lice: Parasites that can be spread sexually or by clothing or bed linen

F. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (3)

a. Bacterial
b. Greenish – yellow discharge, burning on urination, sore throat (males)
c. Infected women can transmit to infant at birth causing blindness
d. A drop of silver nitrate or antibiotic is routinely placed in the eyes of newborns

F. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (2)

1. If they are not treated, they can cause serious chronic conditions and in some cases, sterility or death
2. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): virus attacks the body’s immune system
3. Chlamydia: specialized bacterium that lives as an intacellular parasite

F. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

5. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
a. Inflammation of the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
b. Etiology: bacteria, virus or fungus
6. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)
a. Seen 3-14 days prior to menstruation
b. Cause unknown

E. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (3)

2. Cervical cancer: detected early by a Pap smear
3. Endometriosis: abnormal growth of tissue outside the uterus
4. Ovarian cancer:
a. Common cause of cancer death
b. Initial symptoms are vague

E. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (2)

b. Labia majora: Two folds of fatty tissue covered with hair that encloses and protects the vagina
c. Labia minor: within labia majora
d. Vestibule: inside labia minor
e. Perinium: area between vagina and anus
7. Breasts/mammary glands: contain lobes separated into sections by connective and fat tissue

D. Female Reproductive System (6)

4. Vagina
a. Connects cervix with the outside
b. Birth canal
Bartholin’s glands: secrete mucus for lubrication during intercourse
6. Vulva: External female genital area
a. Mons veneris

D. Female Reproductive System (5)

3. Uterus
a. Three parts
(1) Fondus
(2) Body
(3) Cervix: narrow bottom section that attaches to vagina
b. Functions: allow for growth of fetus

D. Female Reproductive System (3)

2. Fallopian tubes
a. Lateral ends of these tubes are located above ovaries but have no direct connection to ovaries
b. Fimbriae – fingerlike projections on the ends of the fallopian tubes that help move the ovum
c. Passage way from ovary to uterus
d. Fertilization usually takes place here

D. Female Reproductive System (2)

9. Urethra: Carries urine from the urinary bladder and semen from the reproductive tubes
10. Penis
a. External male reproductive organ
b. Prepuce – proper name for the foreskin. Removed during circumcision

B. Male Reproductive System (6)

7. Prostate gland
a. Doughnut shaped gland
b. Produces an alkaline secretion
(1) Increases sperm mobility
(2) Provides a more favorable environment for sperm
c. Contracts during ejaculation to aid in the expulsion of semen into the urethra

B. Male Reproductive System (4)

UNIT 6:14


1. Small structure behind the brain
2. Knowledge regarding the physiology of this gland is limited

K. Pineal Body

1. Sex glands or gonads of the male
2. Suspended outside of the body
3. Produce hormone testosterone to stimulate the growth and development of sex organs in the male

I. Testes

1. Fish shaped organ behind stomach

2. Both an exocrine and endocrine gland

3. Produces insulin for metabolism of glucose

G. Pancreas

b. Hypoparathyroidism:
(1) Underactivity of parathyroid
(2) Causes low calcium levels
(3) Tx: calcium; Vit D; and parathormone

E. Parathyroid Glands (2)

1. Regulates metabolism
2. Located in front of the upper part of the trachea
3. Diseases affecting thyroid
a. Goiter: enlargement of the thyroid
b. Hyperthyroidism: overactivity of gland
c. Graves’ disease: severe hyperthyroid
d. Hypothyroidism: underactive thyroid

D. Thyroid Gland

1. Pituitary gland often called the “master gland” since it produces many hormones that affect each other
2. Diseases affecting pituitary gland
a. Acromegaly: over secretion of somatotropin in an adult
b. Giantism: over secretion of somatotropin before puberty

C. Pituitary Gland

1. Endocrine system is a ductless system
2. Secretes hormones directly into blood
3. Includes:
a. Pituitary e. Ovaries
b. Thyroid f. Testes
c. Parathyroid g. Thymus
d. Adrenals h. Pineal body
e. Pancreas I. Placenta

A. Introduction

UNIT 6:13


1. Cystitis:
a. Inflammation of the bladder
b. Tx: antibiotics & increased fluid intake
Glomerulonephritis or nephritis: inflammation of the kidney
3. Pyelonephritis:
a. kidney tissue/renal pelvis inflammation
b. cause: pyogenic- pus forming bacteria

H. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

1. Polyuria: excessive urination
2. Oliguria: below normal amt. of urination
3. Anuria: absence of urination
4. Hematuria: blood in urine
5. Pyuria: pus in urine
6. Nocturia: urination at night
7. Dysuria: painful urination
8. Retention: inability to empty bladder
9. Incontinence: involuntary urination

G. Conditions Affecting Urination

1. Liquid waste product produced by urinary system

2. Urine is approximately 95% water

F. Urine

Ureters: two muscular tubes that extend from the kidney to the bladder
Peristalsis: wavelike motion of involuntary muscle that moves urine

C. Ureters

4. Nephrons: microscopic filtering units located in the kidney
a. Glomerulus: clusters of capillaries in nephron
(1) Water, minerals, salts, sugars, metabolic products are filtered here
(2) Red blood cells and proteins not filtered

B. Kidneys (3)

3. Hilum:
a. notched or indented area on kidney
b. area where the ureter, nerves, blood vessels, and lymph vessels enter and leave the kidney

B. Kidneys (2)

1. The urinary system is responsible for maintaining the body’s acid-base balance
2. Parts include:
a. Kidneys
b. Ureters
c. Bladder
d. Urethra

A. Introduction

12. Peritonitis: Inflammation of stomach peritoneal cavity
13. Ulcer: Open sore on lining of digestive tract
a. Major cause of peptic ulcer is bacteria
b. Two symptoms of ulcer are hematemesis and melena

K. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (6)

6. Diverticulitis: fecal matter and bacteria become trapped in the diverticula
7. Gastroenteritis: inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the stomach and intestinal tract
8. Hemorrhoids: dilated or varicose veins in rectum

K. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (3)

1. Appendicitis: Inflammation of appendix
a. If appendix rupture may lead to peritonitis
b. Peritonitis – infectious material spills out into peritoneal cavity
2. Cholecystitis: Inflammation of gallbladder
a. Cholecystis: gallstones
b. May also lead to peritonitis

K. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

1. Largest gland in body
2. Functions
a. Secretes bile
b. Stores: glycogen (sugar) & iron
c. Produces: heparin, blood proteins, and cholesterol
d. Detoxifies

H. Liver

1. 5 feet long 2” diameter
2. Functions
a. Absorb water and remaining nutrients
b. Storage of indigestible material
c. Synthesis of vitamins by bacteria
d. Transportation of waste

G. Large Intestine

8. Villi:
a. Fingerlike projections that line wall of small intestine
b. Blood capillaries absorb digested nutrients; Lacteals pick up digested fat
9. Only waste and excess water remain after passage through small intestine

F. Small Intestine (4)

Most of the digestion and absorption takes place in the small intestine
5. Intestinal juices
a. Enzymes in intestinal juices
Maltase = sugar
(2) Sucrase = sugar
(3) Lactase = sugar
Peptidases = protein
Steapsin = fat

F. Small Intestine (2)

4. Gastric juices
a. Produced in stomach
b. Converts food into semi fluid material called chyme
c. Juices also contains enzymes
enzyme in the stomach that begins the chemical breakdown of fat
Pro digestion
(infants only)

E. Stomach (2)

1. Bolus: name given to food after it is chewed and mixed with saliva
2. Bolus enters pharynx
3. Carries air to trachea and food to esophagus
4. Epiglottis: prevents bolus from entering respiratory tract

C. Pharynx

4. Hard palate: bony structure that forms the roof of the mouth
5. Soft palate
a. Separates mouth and nasopharynx
b. Uvula: prevents food from entering the nasopharynyx during swallowing

B. Mouth (2)

UNIT 6:11


11. Rhinitis: inflammation of nasal mucous membrane
12. Sinusitis: inflammation of mucous membrane lining sinuses
Tuberculosis (TB)
a. Infectious disease of lungs
b. New strain of TB resistant to drug therapy has created concern of widespread infectious disease

L. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (6)

4. Emphysema: noninfectious chronic respiratory condition that occurs when walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose elasticity
5. Epistaxis
a. Nosebleed
b. Compress nostrils and tilt head slightly forward

L. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions (3)

External respiration: Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and bloodstream
Internal respiration:
a. Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between tissue cells and bloodstream
b. Cellular respiration: process which cells use O2 & nutrients to produce energy, water, & CO2

K. Stages of Respiration

1. Two phases: inspiration & expiration
2. Inspiration
a. Diaphragm contracts enlarging thoracic cavity
b. Vacuum is created
c. Air rushes in

J. Ventilation

1. Resemble a bunch of grapes
2. Made of one layer of squamous epithelium tissue and contain a rich network of blood capillaries
3. Allow for the exchange of oxygen between the lungs and blood
4. Surfactant help keep lung from collapsing

H. Alveoli

1. Larynx is correct name for voice box
2. Contains two folds called vocal cords
a. Glottis: opening between vocal cords
b. Epiglottis: prevents food and liquids from entering lungs

E. Larynx

1. Cavities around nasal area

2. Lined with mucous membrane warms and moistens air

3. Provides resonance for the voice

C. Sinuses

UNIT 6:10


1. Adenitis: Inflammation of lymph nodes
2. Hodgkin's Disease:
a. Chronic malignant disease of lymph nodes
b. Most common form of lymphoma
3. Lymphangitis: Inflammation of lymph vessels

G. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions

b. Three pairs of tonsils
(1) Palatine tonsils – side of soft palate
(2) Pharyngeal tonsils – commonly called adenoids; located in the nasopharynx
(3) Lingual tonsils – masses of lymph tissue on back of the tongue

F. Lymph Tissue (2)

3. Thoracic duct
a. Drains lymph from rest of body
b. Empties into L. subclavian vein
c. Cisterna chyli: pouch like structure at the start of the thoracic duct

E. Lymph Ducts (2)

1. Popularly called “glands”
2. Range in size from a pinhead to an almond
3. Nodes filter lymph and remove impurities
4. Lymph nodes produce a type of leukocyte and antibodies to fight infection
5. Purified lymph leaves lymph node by a single lymphatic vessel

D. Lymph Nodes

1. Located in all tissues that have blood vessels
2. Lymphatic capillaries
a. Small open–ended lymph vessels
b. Pick up lymph at tissues
3. Lymphatic vessels carry lymph

C. Lymphatic Vessels

UNIT 6:9


9. Leukemia
a. Malignant disease of bone marrow
b. Results in large number of WBC
10. Myocardial infarction/heart attack
a. Blockage of coronary arteries
b. Common symptom is severe crushing pain that radiates to the arm, neck, and jaw

F. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (6)

8. Hypertension
a. High blood pressure 140/90
b. Risk factors
(1) Family history (4) Smoking
(2) Race (5) Aging
(3) Stress (6) Diet/Obesity
c. If not treated, can cause permanent damage to the heart, blood vessels and kidneys

F. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (5)

4. Atherosclerosis
a. Fatty plaques on artery walls
b. If plaques break loose the circulate as an emboli
c. Surgeries to open clogged arteries
(1) Balloon angioplasty
(2) Coronary stent
(3) Bypass surgery

F. Disease and Abnormal Conditions (3)

d. Thrombocytes
(1) Platelets
(2) No nucleus
(3) Important for clotting process which stops bleeding
(4) Normal count is 250,000-400,000 per cubic centimeter of blood

E. Blood Composition (5)

(3) No nucleus
(4) Contains hemoglobin (red color)
aa. Carries both O2 and CO2
bb. High O2 = bright red
cc. Low O2 = dark red
c. Leukocytes: white blood cells
(1) Main function is to fight infection
(2) Phagocytosis: process by which some leukocytes engulf, ingest, and destroy germs

E. Blood Composition (3)

1. Blood often called a tissue
2. Four to six quarts of blood in the average adult
3. Plasma: 90% water with many substances suspended
a. Fibrinogen and prothrombin, necessary for clotting
b. Nutrients

E. Blood Composition

1. Three main types of blood vessels
a. Arteries
b. Veins
c. Capillaries
2. Arteries
a. Carry blood away from heart
b. Aorta: largest artery in body
c. Arterioles: smallest branch of arteries

D. Blood Vessels

1. Electrical impulses originating in the heart cause the cyclic contraction of the muscle
2. Starts in the sinoatrial (SA) node
3. Atrioventricular (AV) node
4. Bundle of His
5. R. & L. bundle branches
6. Purkinje fibers
7. Movement of the electrical impulse can be used to detect abnormal activity or disease

B. Conductive Pathway

3. Heart Chambers
a. R. Atrium receives blood as it returns from body cells
b. R. Ventricle pushes blood into pulmonary artery goes to lungs
c. L. Atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
d. L. Ventricle pushes blood into aorta to body

A. Heart (2)

UNIT 6:8


2. Sense of smell
a. Determined by olfactory receptors
b. Sense of smell more sensitive than taste
3. Skin and general senses: General sense receptors for pressure, heat, cold, touch, and pain are located throughout the body

D. Other Senses cont.. (2)

d. Otitis Media:
(1) Middle ear infection
(2) Myringotomy: Incision of the tympanic membrane and insertion of tubes to relieve pressure
e. Otosclerosis: Stapes become immobile and cause conductive hearing loss

B. Ear cont.. (6)

1. Transmits sound waves to vestibulocochlear nerve
2. Divided into three main sections: the outer ear, middle ear, and the inner ear
3. Outer ear
a. Pinna or auricle: visible portion
b. Auditory canal: outer ear tube
c. Tympanic membrane: separates external and middle ear

B. Ear

4. Refraction of light rays
a. Cornea
b. Aqueous humor
c. Pupil
d. Lens
e. Vitreous humor to focus on retina
f. If rays are not refracted correctly vision can be distorted or blurred

A. Eye cont.. (6)

c. Retina
(1) Innermost layer
(2) Two special types of cells in retina
aa. Cones: used mainly for light vision, sensitive to color, contain fovea centralis the area of sharpest vision
bb. Rods: used for dark or dim vision

A. Eye cont..(4)

2. Three main layers of the eye
a. Sclera
(1) Outermost layer
(2) White of the eye
(3) Cornea: a circular transparent part on the front of the sclera that allows light rays to enter the eye

A. Eye cont.. (2)

10. Parkinson’s Disease
a. Degeneration of brain cells
b. Symptoms include: tremors, stiffness, muscular rigidity, a shuffling gait, and a loss of facial expression
c. Treatment but no cure
11. Shingles: Acute inflammation of nerve cells caused by the herpes virus

G. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions cont..(6)

7. Multiple Sclerosis (MS):
a. Chronic, progressive disabling condition resulting from degeneration of the myelin sheath
b. Cause: unknown
c. Tx: Physical Therapy, steroids…

G. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (4)

3. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain frequently caused by a virus contracted from a mosquito bite
4. Epilepsy: Abnormal electrical impulses in the neurons of the brain
a. Two types:
(1) Absence or petit mal
(2) Grand mal

G. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (2)

2. Autonomic Nervous System
a. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems work together to maintain a balanced state called homeostasis
b. Sympathetic nervous system: acts in time of emergency
c. Parasympathetic nervous system: slows heart rate and respirations; increases activity in digestive tract

F. Peripheral Nervous System cont..(2)

4. Ventricles
a. Hollow spaces located in the brain
b. Filled with cerebrospinal fluid
(1) Produced by special structures called choroid plexuses
(2) After circulating fluid is absorbed into the blood vessels by arachnoid villi

E. Central Nervous System cont..(6)

4. Muscle spasms (cramps): Sudden, painful, involuntary contractions of muscles
5. Strain: overstretching muscle or tendons

H. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (2)

F. Major Muscles cont.. (3)

1. Adduction: toward midline
2. Abduction: away from midline
3. Flexion: decreasing angle between bones or bending a body part
4. Extension: increasing angle or straightening body part
5. Rotation: turning around axis
6. Circumduction: moving in a circle

E. Actions of Muscles

1. Produce heat and energy

2. Help maintain posture

3. Protect internal organs

C. Functions

1. Muscles are made of bundles of muscle fibers that are held together by connective tissue
2. Properties or characteristics of muscle
a. Excitability: respond to stimulus
b. Contractibility: contract or become short and thick
c. Extensibility: stretch
d. Elasticity: return to original size

A. Introduction

4. Dislocation: bone is forcibly displaced from a joint
5. Sprain: twisting action tears ligaments at a joint
6. Osteomyelitis: inflammation of bone usually caused by pathogenic organisms
7. Osteoporosis: metabolic disorder caused by a hormone deficiency. (Bone density test)

N. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (3)

3. Fractures cont..
d. Impacted: bone ends jam into each other
e. Comminuted: bone fragments or splinters into more than two pieces
f. Spiral: twisting bone Fx
g. Depressed: skull bones moves inward
h. Colles: distal radius Fx

N. Diseases and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (2)

1. Made of two large os coxae (hip bones)
2. Join at symphasis pubis anteriorly
3. Each os coxa made of three fused bones
a. Ilium
b. Ischium
c. Pubis
4. Acetabulums- sockets
5. Orburator foramen: opening between ischium and pubis, allows for passage of nerves and blood vessels to and from the legs

K. Pelvic Girdle

12 pair
True ribs: first 7 pair of ribs
False ribs: 5 pairs
a. 3 attach to cartilage of rib above
b. Floating ribs
(1) last two pairs of false ribs
(2) no attachment on front of body

G. Ribs or Costae

Facial bones
a. Fourteen facial bones
b. Main bones:
(1) Mandible: lower jaw
(2) Maxilla: two bones forming upper jaw
(3) Zygomatic: cheek
(4) Nasal: nose
(5) Lacrimal: eye
(6) Palatine: roof of mouth

E. Skull cont.. (2)

6. Endosteum: membrane that lines medullary canal
7. Red Marrow: produces red blood cells, platelets, and some white blood cells
8. Periosteum: necessary for bone growth repair, and nutrition
9. Articular cartilage: shock absorber

C. Parts of Long Bones cont..

1. Framework
2. Protection: surround body’s vital organs to protect them
3. Levers:
4. Produce blood cells: Hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis
5. Storage: store most of body calcium supply

B. Functions of Bones


a. Highly contagious fungal infection
b. Athletes foot: contagious fungal infection of the foot (tinae pedis)
c. Tx: oral and topical antifungal medication

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (7)

4. Dermatitis
a. Inflammation of the skin
b. Cause: allergic reaction to detergents..
c. Contact dermatitis: caused by contact with poison ivy, poison sumac, or poison oak
d. Tx: Antihistamines and steroids

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (3)

a. Occurs in different forms
b. Develops from mole that changes color or shape
c. Causes: exposure to the sun, irritating chemicals, or radiation are usual causes
d. Tx: surgical removal; radiation

H. Disease and Abnormal Conditions cont.. (2)

Sensory perception
Regulation of body temp
a. Dilate: blood vessels become larger allowing heat to escape
b. Constrict: vessels become smaller retaining heat
c. Sudoriferous glands (sweat)

E. Functions of Integumentary System

Subcutaneous fascia or hypodermis
a. Innermost layer of skin
b. Made of elastic and fibrous connective tissue
c. Connects skin to underlying muscle

B. Layers of the Skin cont.. (3)

a. Outermost layer of skin
b. Two main layers
Stratum corneum:
outermost layer where cells constantly shed
Stratum germinativum:
replace cells in strata corneum

B. Layers of the Skin

UNIT 6:3


4. Three small cavities
= eyes
= nose
= mouth

B. Body Cavities cont.. (4)

Ventral or anterior cavities
a. Larger than dorsal cavities
b. Separated into two by the diaphragm
Thoracic cavity
(1) Located in the chest
(2) Contains lungs, heart, and large blood vessels

B. Body Cavities cont.. (2)

1. Imaginary lines drawn through the body
2. Directional terms are created by these planes
Transverse plane
Horizontal plane:
divides body into top and bottom half
located near head
located near sacral region

A. Body Planes



F. Systems

3. Tissue groups
c. Nerve tissue: made of special cells called neurons
d. Muscle tissue: produces power and movement

D. Tissues cont.. (4)

a. Process by which sex cells (gamates) reproduce

b. When cells divide by meiosis, the number of chromosomes is reduced to 23

C. Cells cont…(11)

(1) Oval bodies found in cytoplasm
(2) Contain digestive enzymes that digest and destroy old cells
Pinocytic vesicles:
(1) Pocket like folds in cell membrane
(2) Allow large molecules to enter

C. Cells cont… (9)

4. Basic parts of cells cont..
Golgi apparatus
(1) Stack of membrane layers in cytoplasm
(2) Produces, stores, and packages secretions for discharge from the cell

C. Cells cont…(7)

4. Basic parts of cells cont..
(1) Located inside nucleus
(2) Made of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein
(3) Condenses to form chromosomes during cell reproduction
(4) 46 chromosomes 23 pair in cells

C. Cells cont… (4)

4. Basic parts of cell
Cell membrane
: semipermeable allows certain substances to enter and leave cell
(1) Semifluid inside the membrane
(2) Site for all chemical reactions in cell

C. Cells cont… (2)

D. Tissue
7. Tibialis anterior: muscle on front of the low leg that flexes and inverts the foot

8. Gluteus maximus: muscle on the buttocks that extends the thigh

1. Lymphatic system consists of lymph, lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph tissue
2. Works with the circulatory system
3. Function of the lymphatic system is to remove waste and excess fluid from the tissues
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