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Reston Virginia

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Joes Stug

on 15 November 2013

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Transcript of Reston Virginia

Ebola
Since 1976 there have been about 2,156 people infected with Ebola. 1,488 of the said infected people died, giving Ebola a mortality rate of 69%.
Mortality Rate
Ebola has shown up in:
• Democratic Republic of the Congo - 1976-2012
• USA - 1990
• Philippines - 1989-2008
• Sudan - 1976-2004
• England - 1976
• Gabon - 1994-2002
• Ivory Coast - 1994
• South Africa - 1996
• Uganda - 2000-2012
Areas of the World Affected
To put it bluntly, there is no cure for Ebola. Medicines that fight viruses (antivirals) don't work well against the Ebola virus. In most cases, the victim is hospitalized in intensive care and are give medicines and fluids through a vein.
Treatment or Cure?
Causes
Causes for Ebola can include coming into contact with infected animal's bodily fluids, not using protective material when dealing with infected patients, or use of unsterilized needles on multiple patients, but the primary cause of Ebola is the result of an infectious virus traveling to many different people by means of saliva, air, coughing, fecal matter, surfaces, blood, needles, blood transfusions, and sexual activities. Other causes for Ebola include improper treatment of patients who are infected with virus. Improper treatment of patients can cause the spread of the Ebola virus because the patient might not be properly quarantined leading to the spread of the virus








Late symptoms include:
• Bleeding from the eyes, ears, and nose
• Bleeding from the mouth and rectum (gastrointestinal bleeding)
• Depression
• Eye swelling
• Genital swelling
• Increased feeling of pain in the skin
• Rash over the entire body
that often contains blood
• Roof of mouth looks
red
Later Symptoms
Some more rare symptoms include:
• Coma
• Shock
Rarer Symptoms
During the incubation period, which can last about a week, symptoms include:
• Arthritis
• Lower back pain
• Chills
• Diarrhea
• Fatigue
• Fever
• Headache
• Nausea
• Sore throat
Early Symptoms
Base Progression of Symptoms and Main Cause of Death
• Manifestation of Ebola begins with a sudden onset of flu-like stage that gives a general feeling of general malaise, fever with chills, arthralgia, myalgia, and chest pain. Nausea is accompanied by abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. In the respiratory tract someone would experience pharyngitis, with sore throat, cough, dyspnea, and hiccups. The central nervous system is affected by the development of severe headaches, agitation, confusion, fatigue, depression, seizures, and sometimes coma.
• A person may have a rash, or hematomas. Contrary to popular belief, hemorrhage does not lead to hypovolemia and is not the cause of death. Instead, most victims die of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) caused by fluid distribution, hypotension, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and focal tissue necrosis
History of Ebola
Ebola first showed up in Zaire and Sudan in 1976. It got its name from a river in Zaire. In Yambuku, Zaire, one outbreak killed 318 people. No natural reservoir has ever been found for Ebola, even though it has been searched for. In 1979, there was an outbreak in Sudan which killed 22 of the 34 infected. In 1994, four miners in Gabon thought they had yellow fever, but died of Ebola. In 1995, 250 people died of Ebola in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Later, in 2000 in Uganda, 224
people died of the disease, this outbreak was bad because funeral goers
became sick at the funeral.
Goal of Treatment
Treatment is mostly supportive in nature and includes minimizing invasive procedures, balancing fluids and electrolytes to counter dehydration, administration of anticoagulants early (if possible) in the infection to prevent or to control disseminated intravascular coagulation, and administration of antibiotics to treat secondary infections.
There is no way to effectively treat Ebola so that it goes away for sure. The treatment is only to give a person's immune system the best chance to fight off infection.
Pertinent Info on Ebola
Ebola is a severe, often fatal disease. The host of the virus is unknown. It is named after where the first outbreak was, the Ebola River. Ebola's first outbreak in the United States was in Reston, Virginia in 1989. Small amounts of it have also been found in Texas and Pennsylvania.
Ebola is believed to be a zoonotic disease, being able to be transmitted from animals to humans. It was brought into the U.S. by laboratory monkeys. It is also known as the Green Monkey Fever.
More Pertinent Info
Even More Info
It take around 2-21 days for Ebola to take effect after you have contracted it. In the past, Ebola has killed about 90% of its victims. Once Ebola has taken effect, you throw up the "Black Vomit." In 1976, the virus infected 917 people with 641 deaths in Sudan, Zaire, and Kikwit
The last outbreak of Ebola was in the Congo in 1999. The virus spread at the speed of transportation. Ebola has no cure, putting its victims in much pain. Ebola is said to be the world's most deadly virus and one of the most painful deaths possible.
Mechanisms of Transmission
There is no (known) carrier state of Ebola. Any organism with the virus in their system is infected. Most researchers think that the first patient becomes infected through contact with an infected animal, mainly primates. Fruit bats are the presumptive reservoir hosts of Ebola, but no one knows.
Ebola is commonly spread through people in the same family. Any contact with the blood or secretions of an infected person can be enough to spread the disease. People caring for family members can easily be infected when they come in close contact with their bodily fluids.
Nosocomial transmission, transmission through hospitals, is very common. In many clinics and hospitals in Africa, healthcare workers don't use gowns, masks or gloves. It is easy for bodily fluids to infect healthcare workers not wearing protective clothing.
Often times, needles and syringes used in these clinic and hospitals are not sterilized after use. Needles may only be rinsed off with water, then injected into another patient. Infected needles can easily spread the disease.
All Ebola viruses have displayed the ability to be spread through aerosols under research conditions. However, no such transmission has been recorded in a real-world setting.
Incubation Period of Ebola
The incubation period for Ebola ranges from 2 to 21 days. The average incubation period for a patient is 12.5 days.
• William T. Close - Author of "Ebola Through the Eyes of the People"
• Tara C. Smith - Author of "Ebola and Marburg Viruses"
• Edward C. Willett author of "Ebola Viruses (Diseases and People)"
Important People Associated With Ebola
A Few More Famous People...
• Laurie Garrett - Author of "The Coming Plague"
• Richard Preston - Author of "The Hot Zone"
Sources
Symptoms and Treatments - Miller
health.nmes.com/health/guides/disease/ebola-hemorrhagic-fever/overview.html
www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/qa.htm
www.npr.org>news>health
www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=antibody-treatment-found-to-halt-deadly-ebola-virus-in-primates
Causes/Mortality Rate - Hayden
CDC.gov
http://Ebola.emedtv.com/Ebola/causes-of-Ebola.html
History of Ebola - Taylor
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod.dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/ebolatable.htm

Mechanisms of Transmission and Incubation Period - Austin
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/Spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/qa.htm
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/Fact_Sheets/Ebola_Fact_Booklet.pdf
Areas of the World Affected and Important People Associated With - Elijah
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod.dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/ebolatable.htm
http://www.goodreads.com/shelf/show/ebola
Pertinent Info - Lucas
<www.funtrivia.com/en/subtopics/Ebola-Virus-799.html>
<www.funtrivia.com/en/subtopics/Ebola-Virus-Part-2-51068.html>
<http://sites.google.com/site/ebolavirus30443/-fun-facts>

Group Members
Miller Dawkins - Symptoms & Treatments
Lucas Meiners - Unusual/Pertinent Facts
Elijah Byers - Areas of the World Affected & Important People Associated with
Robert Bond - Mechanisms of Transmission & Incubation Period
Taylor Owen - History of the Disease
Carl Grief - Lore Master
Full transcript