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Menu and its characteristics

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Marie Rados

on 3 November 2013

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Transcript of Menu and its characteristics

Menu and its characteristics
Organized food service dates back to 10,000 BC, to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Inns already existed in ancient China.

Middle Ages weren't all about ascesis: the art of baking and cooking, beer and wine making were considerably advanced in abbeys and monasteries.

The most important event in the development of the restaurant occurred in 1760, when a man called Boulanger opened an eating place where he served nourishing soups, which he called health restorers. This the place was called a restaurant. This enterprise was so successful that within 30 years Paris had over 500 restaurants!
The first restaurants
Types of menus
Today there are two main types of menus used in the food industry.

A la carte: the customer can select dishes from the menu one by one

Set menu: the menu includes a set number of courses at a set price
Service techniques
Table service
You may sit down, choose from a menu card and give your order to the waiter.
Fast-food restaurants
Place your order at a counter, then take your food yourself to the dining area.
You take the cutlery and the food yourself on a tray and pay at the cash desk.
Home delivery
The food is ordered on the phone and delivered to your place
Buffet service
The food is placed on the serving table and the guests stand in the line requesting portions of what they desire
Types of table service
English/Silver service
The waiter serves food from his tray to the guest's plate from the left side with a spoon and fork. → It is the most elegant way of serving food.
Swiss/American service
It is very fast because the food is already plated in the kitchen and the waiter only has to serve it.
Food is portioned on a gueridon table and then served to the guest. It is the most complicated one and needs a lot of skills, like carving, cooking, flambéing or fish-filleting.
Russian service
The food is placed on the table and the guests help themselves. This type of service is often used at receptions.
The Menu is the mirror of the restaurant
Menu is an important marketing tool as it is the first thing the guests see, so it must grab their attention.
An eye-catching menu
Characteristics of a good menu
reflects the style of the restaurant
great variety of dishes
includes various kinds of cooking methods
takes into consideration is sth is in season (e.g. strawberries in May: champagne with strawberries, strawberries with whipped cream etc. )
balance between light and heavy dishes
not repetitive with basic ingredients
offers a vegetarian option
easy to follow and understand
written on good quality paper
in at least two foreign languages
The main parts of the menu card
Cold starters
Hot starters
The wine list
Aperitifs (e.g Port, Martini, Campari)S
Spirits (e.g. Scotch, Gin, Rum)
Cocktails (e.g. Dry Martini, Margherita)
Digestives (e.g. Cognacs, Brandies, Calvados)
Liquerus (e.g. Bailey's, Grand mariner)
Wines (white, red, rosé / sweet, dry, semi-sweet and semi-dry)
Beers (bottled or draught)
Soft drinks
Fruit juices (orange, peach, apple)
Sodas (colas and other fizzy drinks)
Mineral water (still and sparkling)
Coffee and tea
Drinking tea has become a tradition in British culture. They consume up to 4-5 cups a day usually with milk, not lemon.

Black tea: Ceylon, Darjeeling, Earl Grey, English Breakfast tea
Green tea
Aromatized tea: strawberry, jasmine
Fruit tea
Coffee is probably not as important, but coffee culture is also finding its way in today's British gastronomy.
Main courses
Restaurants use various meats of which the most frequently used are: beef, veal, mutton, poultry – chicken, duck, goose, turkey etc. – and game
We distinguish two main categories: red meat (beef or lamb) and white meat (poultry)
Preparation: frying, grilling, roasting, marinating, stews
When fried (beefsteak): rare, medium-rare, medium and well-done
Freshwater fish: carp, trout, pike-perch, sheat-fish

Seafood: salmon, hake, shellfish, squid, mussels, oysters, lobster, crab, prawn
Fish & seafood
Vegetables: potatoes, green peas, beans, haricot beans, spinach, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, corn, leek etc.

They can be:
cooked in sauce
braised in melted butter
boiled and served with cold butter
boiled and served with breadcrums fried in butter
Vegetable dishes
They add flavour or emphasize the taste of the basic ingredients, thus some consider them even the most important part of a sophisticated dish.

Hot sauces:
béchamel sauce
hollandaise sauce
white/brown sauce
fruit sauces

Cold dressings:
mayonnaise based sauces
thousand island dressing
yoghurt dressing
Sauces and dressings
Matching wine with food
The wine and food consumed should match well. The two should be in balance; neither one should dominate the other. The wrong combination can spoil the food or the wine, or both.
A guideline for serving wine with food:

Starter: champagne, dry white wine
Soup & salad: no wine
Beef: dry and red wine
Lamb: dry and red wine
Veal: light red, rosé or full-bodied white wine
Pork: dry white wine or rosé
Poultry (chicken, duck, turkey): full-bodied white or light red wine
Game: dry or semi-dry red wine
Fish: lighter or heavier dry white wine
Pasta: red wine
Cheese, full flavoured: red, sweet white wine
Cheese, mild: mild table wines
Desserts: sweet white table wine
Desserts are the perfect endings to any dinner. It is the last item served to you, it can make or break your dining experience
Cakes, tarts & pies
Creams & mousses
Cheese and desserts
Selection of cheese (Cheddar, Camembert, Brie, Roquefort, Danish Blue, Gorgonzola)
Actually, the real ending is...
Garnishes are good accompaniments to any type of meat and fish dishes. The garnish has to be in harmony with the rest of the dish.

potatoes (mashed, boiled, baked, stuffed, with parsley, with butter, jacket ~, fries/chips etc.)
zucchini (grilled, stir-fried)
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