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LTE-SON

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Mira Rezk

on 27 June 2013

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Transcript of LTE-SON

Best Spectral Efficiency
Increase the capacity of users
Pricing Efficiency
Anti-Fading System (more than one subcarrier for one user)
Introduction to Wireless Communication
Comparison between
Mobile Generations
Diana Nader
Dina Saad
Kareem Mohammad
Laura Hany
Mariam Rafik

Mobile Generations
SON Optimization Tool
Under the supervision of
Dr.Fatma El Newagy

Credit Hour Engineering Program
Senior Communication

Tarek Ahmed
Mira Nasser
Mark Nabil
Mina Essam
Mina Mohsen

Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Network Structure
Contents
Network Structure
Comparison between Advanced Generation
Air Channels
Cellular Mobile Systems

Types of muliplexing:
FDM
CDM
TDM
OFDM
Multiplexing


Uplink: the transmission from the user
to the base station.

Downlink: the transmission from the base
station to the user.

Types of duplex techniques:
FDD
TDD
Duplex Techniques
LTE Targets
Latency Factor
3G
known as
3.5G
known as
3.75G
known as
4G
known as
AUC Authentication centre
AUC Authentication centre
2G & 3G Network Structure
Differences in Network Structures
3G & 4G Network Structure
Throughput
Spectral efficiency is increased by using
OFDMA Technique
Spectral efficiency
Coverage of 4G cell
Modulation & Demodulation
Ciphering & Deciphering
Allocation of traffic channels (TCHs)
Release of TCHs
Handover commands
Power control
MIMO
Cyclic prefix
Channel coding & interleaving
Synchronization
Evolved NodeB
(E-Node B)
Why OFDMA ?!!
Serving Gateway (SGW):
Switching between users
Charging per volume
Connection & control of all connected elements
Call setup procedures
Packet Gateway (P-GW ):
Interfacing with external data networks
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Home Subscription Server (HSS):
Subscription information
Location information
Mobility Management Entity (MME):
Tracking Area updates
Paging of 4G mobile phones
Policy & Charging Resource Function (PCRF):
Security operation
Charging by volume
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Digital Technology
Packet Switching
Inter system Handover
Cellular concept
Tracking area
Multiple Access : OFDMA (Down Link)
Sc-FDMA (Up Link)
Duplex : FDD or TDD
Frequency band 2.6 GHZ
Channel Bandwidth up to 20 MHZ
MIMO
Adaptive modulation (QPSK,16QAM,64QAM)
Cyclic Prefix
Round trip delay less than 10ms
Applications (HSI, HD video calls, HD video streaming, VoIP....etc)
LTE Technical Specifications
Device
E-USIM: support 2G, 3G & 4G
User Equipment
Enhanced FR Traffic Channel (TCH/EFR)
14.4Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F14.4)
SACCH
FACCH
SDCCH
DCCH
PCH (down)
AGCH (down)
RACH (up)
CCCH
BCCH (down)
SCH (down)
FCCH (down)
BCH
4.8Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F4.8)
9.6Kbit/s FR TCH(TCH/F9.6)
4.8Kbit/s HR TCH (TCH/H4.8)
HR Traffic Channel (TCH/HS)
FR Voice Traffic Channel (TCH/FS)
Data CH
Voice CH
CCH
TCH
channel

2G channels
3G Channels
SON - Self Optimization Network
Advantages of OFDMA
Complexity (FFT , IFFT)

Increasing PAVR
SC-FDMA in UL


Doppler frequency shift
Cyclic Prefix
Disadvantages of OFDMA
LTE
Frequency reuse
Reuse distance
Increasing capacity
Clusters
Reasons for seeking LTE Technology
higher data rate,
more users,
mobility (15~20km/h with high performance, support up to 350km/h even 500km/h )
F
carrier 1
carrier 2
carrier 3
carrier 4
F
spectral efficiency
carrier 1
carrier 2
carrier 3
carrier 4
OFDMA
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
LTE started at Release 8 upgrading from HSPA (High Speed Packet Access 3.75G+)
28 Mbps.
Modulation Technique : DL 64QAM+MIMO
UL 16QAM
Accessing other networks ( Internet,..)
Handover
2G
3G
4G
MSC
MSC
SAE-GW
SAE-GW
BSC
BSC
BTS
BTS
SGSN
SGSN
RNC
RNC
NodeB
NodeB
eNodeB
eNodeB
Capacity on Demand (1.4Mbps~20Mbps)
MIMO



Adaptive Modulation (QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM)
OFDMA
Multiple Access
Techniques
Types of multiple access:
FDMA
CDMA
TDMA
OFDMA
Modulation
Technique
GMSK
QPSK,
16QAM,
64QAM
GMSK
QPSK
GMSK
Simulator
How to study a network using a Simulator:
Why using Simulator ?
•It saves money through Designing , Building then Testing
Then you can edit your design to reach the optimum design
•You can get a high level of details for tour design , the only restrictions are your imaginations , programming skills and your CPU Performance
Choosing a Simulator
Different types of network simulators can be categorized and explained based on some criteria such as if they are commercial or free, or if they are simple ones or complex ones.
Simulator examples are OPNET and LTE-SIM
So we choose OPNET Simulator
OPNET Simulator Module
•Opnet Stands for optimum network performance
•Opnet is a computer software to stimulate communication networks
•Opnet provides graphical editor to you to edit your own devices, configure your own networks and design your own protocols.
Advantages of OPNET Simulator
•The graphical modeling approach (graphical user interface)
•Variety of analysis tools
One of the most important features of Opnet is Three-tiered Hierarchical modeling
1.Network
2.Node
3.Process
OPNET Workflow
WIMAX
Introduction to mobile Communication.
Mobile Generations
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Targets
Specifications
Network Structure
Air Channels
LTE-A and WiMAX
Self Optimizating Network
Simulator

Introduction:
In today's mobile wireless networks, many network elements and associated parameters are manually configured. Planning, configuration, integration and management of these parameters are essential for efficient and reliable network operation which needs Specialized expertise to tune these network parameter
Also,
Associated operations  significantly costs
manual process  time-consuming
potentially error
delays in updating values
Self-Organizing Networks (SON) in
3GPP Long Term Evolution

1.The number and structure of network parameters have become large and complex

2. Quick evolution of wireless networks has led to parallel operation of 2G, 3G, EPC infrastructures

3. The rapidly expanding number of Base Stations (especially Home eNB) needs to be configured and managed with the least possible human interaction.

4. Some processes are repetitive while others are too fast or difficult to be performed manually.
Fast and complex processes
that are automated
to provide performance, quality and operational benefits
Previously manual processes
that are automated
to save time and effort
SON aims to configure and optimize the network automatically, so that the interaction of human can be reduced and the capacity of the network can be increased.
SON automation can be grouped into two broad categories:
Self-Organizing Networks capability is a key component of the LTE network. SON concepts have been included in the LTE (E-UTRAN) standards starting from the first release of the technology (3GPP Release8)
History of SON
Release 8:
Automatic Software Download
Automatic Neighbour Relation
Release 9:
Mobility Robustness/Handover optimization
Load Balancing optimization
Release 10:
Coverage & Capacity optimization
Self-healing functions
SON ARCHITECTURE
Advantages:
Simple Architecture

Disadvantages:
Single Point of failure
High delay
Centralized
Advantages :
Fast action
No single point of failure
Disadvantages:
Complex
Distributed
Best choice because it is a mix between the two architectures.
If there is a problem it will take the action as if it is centralized and if the same problem occurs again it will take the action as if it is distributed.
Hybrid
Self-configuration includes two stages:
basic setup
initial radio configuration.
Newly deployed nodes (eNBs) are configured by automatic installation procedures.
Base Station Self-configuration
Automatic discover and setup of neighbor relations.
Automatically sets up of the LTE unique X2 interface between eNBs
used for handover.
Benefits:
1) Minimize manual handling
of setting neighbour relations
optimizing neighbor lists.
2) Increase the number of successful handovers
leading to less dropped connections
AUTOMATIC NEIGHBOR RELATION (ANR)
Automatic PCI (Physical Cell Identity) planning
Energy Savings
Load Balancing
In LTE, RACH (Random Access Channel) is an uplink channel, used for initial access or uplink synchronization.

Disadvantages:
A poorly configured RACH may increase access setup time and accesses failures, impacting both call setup and handover performance.

Benefits:
An optimized RACH configuration
Reduce connection time
Higher throughput
Better cell coverage.
RACH (Random Access Channel) Optimization
Objective:
1) Improve the network performance of HO in order to provide improved end-user experience as well as increased network capacity.

2) Eliminate Radio Link Failures and reduce unnecessary handovers.

This is done by ==> automatically adapting cell parameters to adjust handover boundaries based on feedback of performance indicators.

Problems of HO-related performance :
Intra-RAT late HO triggering
Intra-RAT early HO triggering
Intra-RAT HO to an incorrect cell
Inter-RAT too late HO
Inter RAT unnecessary HO
Mobility Robustness (MRO)/ Handover Optimization
Intra-RAT late HO triggering
If the UE mobility is faster than the HO parameter settings so signal strength of the source cell is too low so a handover is necessary to be done which isn’t done at the right time and radio link failure happens.

Intra‐RAT Early HO triggering
when the terminal enters an island of coverage of another cell contained inside the coverage area of the serving cell.
Main Drivers for SON:
Centralized
Distributed
Hybrid

Intra-RAT HO to an incorrect cell

It is possible if the cell-neighbor-pair parameters are set incorrectly that the handover may be directed towards a wrong cell.


Inter-RAT too late HO
Inter RAT unnecessary HO

Handovers between 4G  3G
Our vision Next term
Practical work on Opnet simulator
Vendor specification SON
Feature selection

Thanks !!!!!
15kHz
PCI is an essential configuration parameter for a cell.
504 unique PCIs in E-UTRAN
In the SCH for UE to synchronize with the cell on the downlink.
Automatically configure the Physical Cell ID of a newly introduced cell So UEs identify the source of a receiving signal

Benefits:
When eNB is powered up; it is allocated to a PCI
Enforces significant margin and separation between two eNBs that are allocated to the same PCI.
Similar network elements that are intended to share traffic also share the load.

Objective:
Spread user traffic across the system’s radio resources by optimizing cell reselection/handover parameters to cope with the unequal traffic load

Benefits:
1) Minimize the number of handovers
and redirections needed to achieve the load balancing.
2) provide quality end-user experience and performance, while simultaneously optimizing system capacity.
Target:
Mobile operators are aiming at decreasing power consumption in telecom networks to :
lower their OPEX (operating expenses)reduce greenhouse emissions

Objectives:
Designing Network elements with lower power consumption and temporarily shutting down unused capacity when not needed.

Providing a stand-by mode controlled remotely via the element management system without affecting the
customer experience such as dropped calls.
Network Structure of Wimax
X2
LA
TA
4G Channels
LTE & LTE-A
LTE & WiMAX
Full transcript