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Geography Mind Map

Geography Course Work Throughout the Year
by

Julia Geist

on 26 May 2010

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Transcript of Geography Mind Map

Geography Physical Geography Human Geography Land Use Categories Residential Commercial Institutional Industrial Recreational Transportational Plants that manufacture
products (not for sale yet) swimming pools parks hockey rinks community centres tennis courts swimming pools Land Concentric Circle Model Modeled after 1930s Chicago Tried to model growth of a city Areas car factory Redpath chemical plants Condos Apartments Townhouses Semi-detached homes Detatched homes mixed use (housing
over stores/shops) Subway trains buses (TTC) TTc yards (to
park subways) street cars street car lanes roads sidewalks highways Government-run buildings Open to the public Provides free services Examples schools prisons hospitals libraries governemnt
offices courts churches Examples Central Business District (CBD) Zone-in-Transition Middle-Aged Housing Newer-Aged Housing The Study of the earth Ecumene The portion of the planet with permanent human settlement 80% water 20% Land 80% inhospitable 20% hospitable ecumene: 4% urban sprawl rapid outward growth of a city has a seemingly out of control quality Storefronts open to the public Examples Sherwood Mr. Sub Classico's Video Sheets Calgary Calgary's size and continuous growth causes problems Examples traffic (car accidents/delays) Wasted time long commute to work Calgary has a reputation for its (sub)urban sprawl In total area, Calgary is the largest city in Canada. Sau Paulo Very diverse stretches more than 100km from end to end shantytown: a town filled
with half built structures on
poor quality landbuilt by the
inhabitants themselves poor immigrants large, young families no title to land threat of eviction little or no services megacities Tokyo Los Angeles Mexico City Sau Paulo Population Characteristics Life Expectancy GDP Per Capita Literacy Rate Birthrate Infant Mortality HDI (Human Development Index) Living a long and healthy life Being educated Having a decent standard of living 3 Categories of quality of life statistics Population birthrate death rate density migration urban v.s. rural population Social Healthcare Education Government system Crime Economic Income Poverty Employment center of city (downtown) major hotels business quarters entertainment & cultural venues located in CBD high density apartments gentrified housing
(cabbage town
distillery district) ethnic neighbourhoods, turn of the century homes most densely
populated
area in the city home to very
different urban
areas (social &
economic) has been experiencing
a decline in services older suburbs (Don Mills) local malls accessible by major
roads (car dependent) location of major
outlet malls and
stores housing is planned
by a developer can be categorized as uniform architecture
and large houses with backyards population hierarchy of services high order Costco Home Depot York Dale middle order Leons Lowblaws Young and Eglington Centre low order dry cleaners 7 Eleven Plaza hierarchy of settlements highest order
(regional
centre; capitol
city; mega city) regional hospital university superstore secondary school hospital primary school health clinic grocery store convenience store high order (city) primary school secondary school grocery store convenience store hospital middle order (town) grocery store low order (village/hamlet) convenience store types of economies mixed -government has influence
in some areas but little in
others.
-Provides help for those
trying to start a business.
-Combines government
control with private
ownership.
- Government helps farmers
when market prices are low.
-Two types: Socialist (increase
business taxes) and Conservative
(cut business taxes).
- Government involvement varies
depending on which party is in power. subsistence -Common in developing countries (Africa, South America, and Central Asia)
-Plant small amounts of crops/herd animals in dry climate with poor soils.
-Many Aboriginals subsist on the forest's wood.
-Fruits, roots, medicines, and meat.
-Used by small villages and families.
-Nothing is sold. traditional -Like subsistence, but more developed so that a profit can be made.
-Threatened by more eficient methods of fishing and farming. command -Government owns and controls all parts of the economy.
-Originated in Russia in 1917 after the Russian Revolution.
-All properties, farmland, and industries are owned by the state.
-1945-1991: collapase of most command economies.
-Found in communist nations.
-Many ideas came from Karl Marx, a German living in England.
No competition among similar industries. market -Independantly run businesses without help from the government (or interferance).
-Businesses with high demand will flourish and others will die because of lack of demand. Thus, the market determines how the economy will run and what it will produce.
-The government involvement is limited to managing money policies and stepping in to help faultering companies if they experience failure.
-Based on supply (producers) and demand (consumers). population patterns site & situation GIS GPS medical responses military Urbanization -the growth of cities
(can also mean the adaptation of an urban lifestyle) urbanilization cartogram -A visual representation of a selected statistic. geographic patterns scattered clustered linear Areas along coastline (near water) Areas of low elevation Northern Hemisphere motion maps maps mapping guidelines title direction author border date ruler lines (straight) readability/neatness/ access legend scale Egypt 15 million people in metropolitan area of Cairo (megacity) Limited resources: lack of resources to support the population World's 20 most populous countries Tokyo Mexico City Sau Paulo New York City Shanghi Lagos Los Angeles Calcutta Buenos Aires Settlements Hunter Gathering vs. Farming Main type of knowledge: Experimental Conceptual Relationship with nature: Balance Exploitation Time horizon: Began 5-2.2 million years ago Began 12-10 thousand years ago Connection to you and your DNA: Human evolutionary time: 99.96% Human evolutionary time: 0.04% Culture Map of SOuth Asia Why Trade? Consumers producers country definitions advantages -more products available at a lower price -Can ifluence what happens in other countries or in their own country -Consumers have access to goods otherwise unavailabe to them. disadvantages -potential unemployment if your job is moved overseas. disadvantages advantages -have a larger market -more money from selling more of the product -more imports mean more competition -potentially lower prices for selling goods advantages disadvantages -dependeny on other countries -Potential over exploitation of resources -more employees needed so more jobs are available -develop alliances with other countries Specialization -focusing on a company, country, or individual does well. Comparative Advantage -when a country can produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another. Imports -goods and services brought into a country Exports -goods and services brought out of a country Trade Balance/Budget -exports > imports = trade surplus
-exports < imports = trade deficit Protectionism -when a government places a tariff or quota on imported goods to protect domestic producers from international competition Tariff -a tax placed on imported goods Quota -a restriction of the quantity of a good allowed to enter a country's borders Tourism -brings money and new jobs
-brings new knowledge
-helps tourists learn more about different cultures
-develops new industries & strengthens economy positives: Negatives: -destroys traditional culture of the area (hange of traditional jobs, languages, etc.) Eco-tourism: getting involved with the local people & culture Cost Olive diagram opportunity cost financial cost Economic Basics limite reources + unlimited wants = scarcity. migration push factors ex. natural disaters; war; type of government
(negative factors that "push" immigrants out of the country) pull factors ex. climate & landscape; type of government; better life
(positive factors that "pull" the immigrants towards the new country) Intervening obstable ex. family; culture; legal issues; physical barriers
(situations/factors that prevent migration) artifacts mentifacts sociofacts -iPods -Christianity -St. Clement's School
-taxes Diffusion: the spread of a new feature (idea/product) from one area to another The behaviour that people learn, made up of their belief systems, languages, social patterns, political systems, organizations, food and clothing, customs, and use of buildings, tools, and machines. movement from one area to another C oa ST
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