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Changing Britain 1760-1900

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Euan McCluskey

on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of Changing Britain 1760-1900

Changing Britain 1760-1900
Textiles and Coal
Britain was one of the first nations to lead the industrial revolution. Britain suddenly had mines popping up in areas to collect minerals such as coal and iron for factories and textile mills to produce cotton.
Health and Housing
As cities grew, the general health of the public diminished.
Tenements
Large families were crammed into small rooms
Any sickness was spread easily
As town populations grew the need for housing grew as well.
entire families were forced to live in a single room.
There was poor ventilation, poor lighting and were often damp.
If anyone in the surrounding area got sick the whole tenement was likely to fall ill as well with everyone living so closely
Disease
There were lots of diseases going around during this time period, such as cholera, smallpox and typhus.

Cholera
Cholera was caused by drinking and eating contaminated water and food.
It caused horrible diarrhea and stomach pains. Death often occurred within 24 hours.
Smallpox
This was caused by overcrowding, people would breath in the virus from other infected people. It would cover the infected with pus filled spots and the death toll was 1 in 3.
Typhus
This was contracted by consuming food and water that had been contaminated by sewage. The symptoms included high fevers, stomach pains and diarrhea.
Why did living conditions improve
Local government reform
National democratic reform
Cholera epidemic
Fear of disease
Acts
For health to improve the government needed to pass acts allowing the change to happen. These acts were as simple as forcing decent sanitary conditions to be available to everyone, to laying the way for new drains,
Public Health Act 1848
2 million out of 18 million received boards which controlled sewage, drainage, slaughter houses, roads and water supplies. All new houses had to gave a toilet, old houses were build to be connected to a drain or cesspit
Public Health Act 1875
Health and sanitary inspectors introduced into every city. Local authorities forced drains and sewers to be laid. The local authorities had to provide fresh water and organise refuse collection. Public houses and lavatories were also built.
Coal
Coal was one of the most important minerals during the industrial revolution, it basically powered the country and was therefor nick-named 'Black Diamond'
Coal Mines
For coal to be collected it first had to be mined, this was a dangerous job. Coal mines were always around but until the industrial revolution it had never been that important. They were mostly found in rural areas.
Dangers
Coal mines were very dangerous places, cave-ins were common because miners were literally mining away that the rock that held the ground up. Miners had no electrical torches back then so naked flames were required to see, this however meant any explosive gasses lingering in the mine were likely to explode. Lastly miners working in the mines were likely to be working around something they called black damp, this was actually just carbon dioxide which reduced the amount of oxygen in the air leading to suffocation.
Because of the industrial revolution there was a need for change in the coal mines, safety wasn't up to scratch so new tools and equipment was implemented.
Change in Technology
Davy Lamp
This piece of equipment helped prevent explosions by making sure there was no naked flame for the gasses to come into contact with
Wire Rope
In mines the standard type of rope use was made of hemp, but this was susceptible to fraying or even snapping. So to counter the dangers wire rope was invented. This was much stronger that that previously used because it couldn't frey or snap
Mechanical Coal Cutter
This was developed in the 1850's and replaced the pick-axe, it could cut huge amounts of coal making it much more efficient and less work intensive for the miners
Cotton
Cotton was bought and brought over form the colonies and was turned into cotton yarn in textile mills. It then be sold on by factory owners to make lots of profit
Women and young children were employed in textile mills because of their slanderous fingers and they didn't complain. It was dangerous for them because the spinning machines moved extremely fast was dangerous if fingers got caught in them
Textile Mills
Canals and Railways
During the 19th century there was a desperate need for better transport. There was nothing but horse and carriage and slow boats that depended on the rivers
Factory owners were looking for a new way to transport goods and minerals. Therefor the canals were great, they were man made waterways. Although canal boats were slow they took direct routes that made journeys quick.
Canals
Pros
It was much more practical than the old roads because it was direct
It avoided road tolls
allowed large, heavy goods to be transported
made money for investors
created jobs
Cons
The canals were weather dependent, bad weather mean nothing could be transported
Still a slow means of transport
Were going to be replaced by railways not long after implementation
Although the canals had been implemented there was still a lack of fast, affordable transport for the working class.
Railways
Pros
Brought large amount of work to the navvies others
fast, reliable and inexpensive
Helped expand tourism by allowing the working class to travel to the seaside
allowed fresh produce to be transported to the big cities
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