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Biochemistry

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by

Eli Roehlkepartain

on 26 March 2013

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Transcript of Biochemistry

Biochemistry The study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms Biomolecules Lipid Carbohydrates Proteins Nucleic Acids Phospholipids Forms phospholipid bilayer (double membrane in cells, polar, hydrophobic) Triglycerides Blood fat that helps enable the movement of fat and glucose from the liver Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Most basic and important carbohydrates primary source of energy in animals
fuels cellular respiration primary source of energy in plants
sweet Lactose Sucrose composed of two monosaccharides joined by a covalent bond through a condensation reaction -ose = sugar Made of glucose and galactose monomers
Makes up 4-6% of cow milk Made of sucrose (6-ring) and fructose (5-ring) monomers
transported from plant leaves to other locations through vascular tissue carbohydrate polymers consisting of just a few to several thousand monosaccharide units.
All common polysaccharides contain glucose
Used as food (stored), structural support, and metabolized for energy. Glycogen Glucose Sucrose Cellulose Major component in plant cell walls
Linear with glucose monomers
Humans cannot digest it Chemical Elements The four most common elements in living things
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen Use of "minor chemicals" Sulfur
Used in some amino acids
Calcium
co-factor of enzymes
component of bones in animals
Phosphorous
phosphate group in ATP
Iron
in cytochromes (protein responsible for the generation of ATP in electron transport)
in hemoglobin in animals
Sodium
in membrane function
in sending nerve impulses in animals The Structure of Water Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are held together by polar covalent bonds (unequal sharing of electrons) The Structure of Water The two poles of the atom have opposite charges Properties of Water Thermal Properties Cohesive Properties Solvent Properties High specific heat
absorb and give off heat without changing temperature a lot
High heat of evaporation
water absorbs a lot of heat when it evaporate
Acts as a cooling mechanism for living organisms
i.e sweating Water is very cohesive
Water molecules stick together
Due to the polar covalent bonds
Water forms droplets
Allows some animals can "walk" on water Water is a good solvent (dissolves) for polar molecules
Most molecules in body are polar
Excellent medium for transport
Transports dissolved sugars in plants Blood is mostly water and transports molecules in animals Organic vs. Inorganic Important Structures Amino Acid Fatty Acid Ribose Glucose Main biological functions:
energy storage,
signaling
structural components of cell membranes Fructose "fruit sugar"
sweet Maltose Made of two glucose monomers Stores glucose in liver and muscles Starch Most common carbohydrate used by humans Amino Acids (building block of proteins Enzymes Antibodies Used in many biological chemical reactions Proteins used by immune system to identify and attack foreign bodies Essential for all forms of life Nucleotides = building block Condensation and Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates Condensation Hydrolysis Condensation and Hydrolysis of Triglycerides Hydrolysis Condensation Condensation and Hydrolysis of Amino Acids Condensation Hydrolysis Energy Storage Carbohydrates Lipids Stored as triglycerides
Most efficient energy storage
Long term
Hard to access
Stores ~2X as much energy as carbohydrates per gram Stored as glycogen
"Fast" energy
Short term
Easy to access Organic
Contains carbon and hydrogen
Most molecules in Humans are organic
Inorganic
May contain carbon or hydrogen Eli Roehlkepartain
Hour 5
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