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IB History Eastern/Central Europe Review
Transcript of IB History Eastern/Central Europe Review
1941-53 Nikita Khrushchev
1953-64 Leonid Brezhnev
1964-82 Mikhail Gorbachev
1985-91 DESTALINIZATION BREZHNEV DOCTRINE July 1945 - following the Potsdam Conference, USSR sets up pro-communist governments in Eastern Europe March 1946 - "an iron curtain has descended across the continent" (British PM WinstonChurchill) 1947 BEIRUT = President
1947 GOMULKA = Leader of the Polish United Workers' Party (PUWP) 1947 - USSR begins Molotov Plan (response to Marshall Plan) 1955 - formation of the Warsaw Pact 1956 - Poznan Strikes: "we demand bread!"
violence was used to suppress the protest, more than 50 killed 1970 - food price riots in Gdnask
protests suppressed, hundreds killed 1980 - formation of Solidarity 1956 - in response to the strike, Gomulka readmitted to party membership and appointed to the Politburo; confirmed First Secretary of the PUWP 1978 - Pope John Paul II elected Pope of Catholic Church; the naming of him as the Pope "burst like a joyful bombshell" (Stokes) December 1981 - martial law imposed "...We have the right to decide our own affairs, to mould our own future...the world reacted with silence or with mere sympathy when Polish frontiers were crossed by invading armies...I made the right decisions, I set everything on the right course, the reforms are going in the right direction." (Walesa) Yuri Andropov 1982-4
Konstantin Chernenko 1984-5 POLAND CZECHOSLOVAKIA HUNGARY 1990 - WALESA = PRESIDENT "The Russians brought winter to the Prague Spring." August 21, 1968 - Warsaw Pact Invasion
of Czechoslovakia "1968 declares the clinical death of Marxist revisionism in Eastern Europe" (Kolakowski, anti-politician) Oct 23-Nov 10, 1956 - Hungarian Revolution salami tactic "behind the iron curtain" 1981 - JARUZELSKI = Chair of PUWP
1986-9 = President 1989 - fall of the Berlin Wall
"the walls came tumbling down" goulasch communism GLASNOST & PERESTROIKA 1953 - death of Josef Stalin, due to brain haemorrhage (bleeding) and agony 1956 - Khrushchev denounces Stalin in his speech "On the Cult of Personality and its Consequences" December 1970 - EDWARD GIEREK - LEADER OF PUWP “Polish way to socialism” “Stalin acted not through persuasion, explanation, and patient cooperation with people, but by imposing his concepts and demanding absolute submission to his opinion." -Khrushchev, "Secret Speech," 1956 “I realize that the strivings of the Polish people gave rise, and still do so, to the feelings of understanding and solidarity all over the world.” - Lech Walesa "Solidarity will be not 'divided.'" - Lech Walesa 16 points: "We demand the immediate evacuation of all Soviet troops" "October 23, 1956, is a day that will forever live in the annals of free men and free nations. It was a day of courage, conscience, and triumph." -John F. Kennedy, 1960 “...his infamous Operation Salami tactics, eliminating the opposition slice by slice. Those accused of collaborating with fascists became the first victims of the purge.”
Feuding Hungarians in the West, Judith Fai-Podipnik SHOULD THE WEST HAVE INTERVENED IN THE HUNGARIAN REVOLUTION?
No: “Many people, including Khrushchev, accused the NATO powers of “adding fuel to the flames of a civil war” in Hungary.” (Larry Helm)
Yes: “Even though the Eisenhower administration was loath to become involved, it nevertheless directed Radio Free Europe and other American radio programs aimed the audiences within the communist bloc to broadcast messages of hope and encouragement.” (Paul Du Quenoy) METROPOLITAN “Khrushchev is losing East Germany. He cannot let that happen. If East Germany goes, so will Poland and all of eastern Europe.” - John Lewis Gaddis USSR “By the beginning of September 1989, Poland was the first socialist country in the Soviet bloc to have not only a non-Communist prime minister but also a coalition cabinet in which Communists were in the minority.” (Goldman) METROPOLITAN
“Without Soviet acquiescence, Poland could not have moved away from Communist Party
dominance…” (Goldman) METROPOLITAN
"...throughout the period of martial law, an active though clandestine political opposition still survived, as dissent always managed to do under Polish communist rule…but,
Solidarity endured also because Jaruzelski, though severe, would not use a ruthless, neo-
Stalinistic repression.” (Biksupski) “De-Stalinization did for a time secure Khrushchev’s position at home, but it severely
weakened his authority over communism elsewhere.” (John Lewis Gaddis) Kadar "was neither a bloodthirsty Soviet (Rakosi)
governor nor an inflexible Stalinist (Nagy).” - Hoensch & Traynor METROPOLITAN & LIBERATION
“Hungary’s nonviolent transition away from communism must also be attributed to the
Gorbachevian Kremlin…” (Goldman) 1945 - RAKOSI = Leader of Hungarian Communist Party 1949 - USSR forms COMECON (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); facilitated trading between the Eastern bloc. at first the terms of trade were advantageous to the USSR, but were later equalized under Khrushchev Oct-Nov 1956 - NAGY = Leader of Hungarian Communist Party Nov 1956 - KADAR = Leader of Hungarian Communist Party stuff sausages into people's mouths 1988 - first peaceful demonstration in Budapest May 1988 - GROSZ = Leader of Hungarian Communist Party 1988 - multiparty democratic stae, first free and open elections in the Soviet Bloc 1945 EDWARD BENES = President 1953 - ANTONIN NOVOTNY = General Secretary (after Gottwald's death)
1957 = President Jan 1968 - April 1969 - ALEXANDER DUBCEK = Leader of the Communist Party PRAGUE SPRING April 1968: Action Programme: a plan for a fully democratic socialist state: more open debate, opinion polls, autonomy for Slovakia and travel abroad April 1969 - GUSTAV HUSAK = Leader of the Communist Party "normalizer" / normalization / "Husakism" December 29, 1989 - VACLAV HAVEL = PRESIDENT hardline Stalinist politically, but under Khrushchev's encouragement the country's economy was decentralized and Czechoslovakia experienced relative prosperity consolidate the Husák leadership and remove reformers from leadership positions
revoke or modify the laws enacted by the reform movement
reestablish centralized control over the economy
reinstate the power of police authorities
expand Czechoslovakia's ties with other socialist nations
327,000 MEMBERS OUSTED FROM COMMUNIST PARTY
150,000 LEFT VOLUNTARILY
900 UNIVERSITY LECTURERS SACKED vicious cycle: increase prices > workers go on strike > increase wage > workers buy more > food shortage > workers go on strike Cold War historiography 1992 - Soviet troops begin to leave Poland, Hanna Suchocka, becomes leader of sejm 1993 - reformed communist form coalition and promise to continue market reforms 1994 - Poland joins NATO's Partner for Peace Program NATO WARSAW PACT MARSHALL PLAN MOLOTOV PLAN 1995 - Aleksander Kwasniewski, a former Communist, narrowly beats Lech Walesa to become president 1997 - Polish parliament adopts a new constitution, general election is won by the Solidarity grouping DECOLONIZATION THEMES I address myself to the Communists, to those Communists who were prompted to join the Party by the progressive ideas of mankind and socialism, and not by selfish personal interests - let us represent our pure and just ideas by pure and just means – Janos Kadar US aid beginning April 1948 military alliance since April 1949 military alliance since May 1955 Soviet aid beginning 1947 historians disagree about the US' motives in giving Marshall Aid: (1) the Marshall Plan was an altruistic act to rebuild economies of the West, (2) Moscow gov't and many historians since then interpret the move as an attempt to establish US economic control in the region Brezhnev Doctrine: "When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it becomes not only a problem of the country concerned, but a common problem and concern of all socialist countries." - Brezhnev, to the Fifth Congress of the PUWP, Nov 1968 1964 - Khrushchev removed from power by his colleagues who considered his policies erratic 1982 - Brezhnev dies of heart attack and several other serious ailments 1986 - "perestroika" = "restructuring", refers to the restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system; "glasnost" = "openness", refers to the openness of political reforms historiography: Soviet expansion into Europe was to (1) export Bolshevism and spread communism; (2) counteract the capitalist imperialist states that would seek to overthrow the communist state in Russia July 1946 KLEMENT GOTTWALD = appointed by Stalin as PM
1948 GOTTWALD = elected (with no opposition parties) as President until 1948: Benes was left-leaning and friendly towards the USSR; non-communists were increasingly victimized
February 1948: Soviet coup carried out to suppress uprisings, resulted in the resignation of Benes, new elections were held 1919 - ToV creates Czechoslovakia
1938 - Hitler invades Sudetenland after Munich Agreement; Czechoslovakia "betrayed" by the Western powers Gottwald = subservient to the USSR; one-party rule; abolished private property; civil society (churches, unions) closed down; purges, show trials, gulags (150,000 political prisoners) reasons for Soviet coup:
1. Stalin was paranoid of collapse of Soviet control
2. Josip Tito (Yugoslavia) was distancing himself
3. elections of January 1948, communist share of votes fell to 25% 1987 - MILOUS JAKES = Secretary of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party "Power of the Powerless" (1987) - "the use of power to manipulate is called the public control of power"; "the original and most important sphere of activity, one that predetermines all the others, is simply an attempt to create and support the independent life of society as an articulated expression of living within the truth" 1993 - "Velvet Divorce" = Slovakia breaks away from the Czech republic November 17, 1989 - "Velvet Revolution" - started as an anti-government protest; Civic Forum (Czech) and People Against Violence (Slovakia) both began demanding concessions from the government remaining problems: reformist economy (1) empowered local managers who set wage levels, (2) not accompanied by political and social reforms Jan 1963 = Dubcek made first secretary of the Slovakian branch of the Czechoslovakian Communist Party student demonstrations to protest against the government's lack of political freedom development of civic organizations, Havel leads Club for Committed Non-Party Members, 90% of the population wanted political parties to be formed Two Thousand Words: “Most people, therefore, lost interest in public affairs; they worried only about themselves and about their money. Moreover, as a result of these bad conditions, now one cannot even rely on money. Relationships between people were harmed, and they didn’t enjoy working anymore. To sum up, the country reached a point where its spiritual health and character were both ruined.” hardline communist but wanted to establish a "social contract" with the people: gave people basic economic security, full employment, free and universal healthcare, guaranteed pensions and subsidized holidays 1977 - Formation of Charter 77 Havel and other members founded Charter 77, and wrote a petition calling on the government to respect the 1975 Helsinki Agreement on Human Rights "Socialism with a Human Face": The face was familiar, although it showed the passage of years spent in hiding. Dubcek, the tragic hero of 1968 Prague Spring, returned triumphantly to join the huge protests. Post-Independence Problems
1) lack of democratic traditions
2) economic shock therapy
3) socio-cultural issues (hyphen war)
4) limited nature of the revolution (top party only) 1991- Czechoslovakia leaves Warsaw Pact 1919 - ToV creates Poland
1939- Hitler invades Poland; Poland "betrayed" by Western powers as the declaration of war from the West did not come quickly enough 1940 - Katyn Massacre 5000 Polish men died
1944 - Warsaw Rising Gomulka, while a Soviet ally, believed his country could follow a separate path to communism; he opposed collectivization of Poland's farms, failed to crack down on the Catholic Church, opposed the formation of Comintern, openly supported Tito; removed from power in 1954 Gomulka allowed a small degree of land ownership and greater freedom of speech; he established order through "a degree of compromise" 1960s: Mieczyslaw Moczar (high ranking member of Communist party) criticize the USSR and called for a more nationalist approach to communism Gomulka continues to restore order through force (clashes took place between students and police) 1976 - formation of the Committee for Social Self Defense (KSS/KOR), criticized the inability of the PUWP to protect the rights and interests of the workers; argued for the Finlandization of Poland, created an underground press and produced newspapers such as Robotnik ("The Worker") 1978 - Free Trade Unions of the Coast (first independent trade union) formed in Gdansk, led by Walesa 1980 - Solidarity produced its 21 Demands, included calls for improved pay and conditions, and the right to form independent trade unions, supported by KOR & Catholic Church October 1981 - October Programme: started with an 1-hour strike, Solidarity demanded legal recognition, called for a general (all-out strike) 1980 - STANISLAW KANIA = First Secretary of PUWP tried to appease the workers with a 12% pay at the October Programme, failed; flew to Moscow to reassure the Soviets the situation was under control 1981-4 - slowly relaxed martial law, Solidarity members slowly released; amnesty by 1984 first free elections: Solidarity wins with 99% of seats; won all 161 seats in the sejm, 99 of the 100 in the senate, and 33 of 35 communist leaders failed to secure seats 1990 - Mazoweicki - PM 1986-8 - constant strikes and protests