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Reflection and Reflective Practice
Transcript of Reflection and Reflective Practice
Gibbs Model of Reflection (1988)
Reflection and Reflective Practice
Centers around the idea of lifelong learning
Practitioner analyzes experiences in order to learn from them
Commonly used in health and teaching professions
Can be an important tool in practice-based learning settings
Many models of reflective practice cycle have been developed
Single-loop learning - practitioner continues to rely on the same strategies and techniques to address reoccurring situations, even when errors occur and have been corrected
Double-loop learning - practitioner modifies personal strategies, techniques and policies so that a new framing system is employed when similar situation arises
This model developed by Graham Gibbs provides six steps for a structured debriefing.
Education reformist John Dewey was one of the first to write about reflective practice in the early 1930's. His writings inspired others to examine the concept.
Diagram of Single-loop and Double-loop Learning
Reflection on Action
Occurs after an experience
Practitioner analyzes their reaction to the situation, explores the reasons around and the consequences of their actions
Usually conducted through a documented reflection of the situation
Reflection in Action
The practitioner allows himself to experience surprise, puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or unique. He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of the phenomenon and a change in the situation. (Schön 1983: 68)
Described as "thinking on your feet"
Practitioner connects with feelings, emotions and prior experience to attend to a situation
Argyris and Schön, 1978
Atkins and Murphy (1993)
Identified three stages of reflection:
Stage 1: Becoming aware of uncomfortable feelings and thoughts
Stage 2: Critical analysis of feelings and knowledge
Stage 3: Development of a new perspective
Atkins and Murphy
Model of Reflection (1994)
Benefits of Reflective Practice
Increased learning from an experience or situation
Promotion of deep learning
Identification of personal and professional strengths and areas for improvement
Identification of educational needs
Acquisition of new knowledge and skills
Further understanding of own beliefs, attitudes and values
Encouragement of self-motivation and self-directed learning
Acts as a source for feedback
Improvement of personal and clinical confidence
Read the articles posted in Blackboard regarding reflective practice and mindful practice.
View the learning theory chart provided in Blackboard. Each week, you will be expected to complete the chart for the learning theory presented during the week. This chart will be submitted at the end of Week 8 and at the end of Week 14.
Argyris, C & Schön, D (1978). Organization learning: A theory of action perspective. Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley.
Atkins, T.W. and Murphy, K. (1993). Reflection: a review of the literature. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18: 1188-92.
Davies, Samantha (2012). Embracing reflective practice. Education for Primary Care, 23: 9–12.
Dewey, J. (1933). How we think. A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process (Revised edition.), Boston: D. C. Heath.
Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods, Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, Oxford Polytechnic. London: Further Education Unit.
Schön, D.A. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.
As you complete each section of the chart, apply reflective practice with regard to your personal learning theory. (The paper you are to submit by 11:59 pm, September 18th should be the basis for your reflection). At the end of the course, you will be asked to submit a personal reflection with regard to your personal learning theory and the theories presented throughout the course. Specific details of the assignment will be posted later in Blackboard.