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history of art timeline
Transcript of history of art timeline
Ancient Egyptian Art c.3000-1000BC
A title given by Renaissance artists as they felt that their own age was more civilised and advanced.
the time of barbarian invasions, crusades...
the time of plague
the time of Church's dominance on western culture
Renaissance Art c.1400-1525 AD
comes from the word Rinascimento - to renew. Artists saw themselves as a recovery of a lost art.
however, they added a new aspect of humanism - man became the measure of all things. The representation of the divine figures became proportional with that of patrons and worshipers. Divine figures started showing feelings. They are now human-like with human feelings.
Ancient Greek Art
Greek and Roman Antiquity c.1000BC-300AD
Marked by 4 main eras:
- geometric patterns on vases
- statues of nudes following symmetrical forms in slight contrapposto- Kouros (male statues) and Kore (female statues)
- golden age of Greece dominated by movement and idealised anatomical details. Architectural orders - Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
- additional drama and movement
Kouros and Kore
Geometry in Greek Vases
Discus Thrower by Myron
Architectural Orders within the Classical Period
Loacoon and his Sons
Ancient Roman Art
Worked at a political propoganda - to prove their power and dominance
warriors and generals replaced the nude athletes
it was historical, commemorative and narrative
aimed at the resemblance of the emperor (no longer idealisation of figures) - death mask
of a won battle
Monks loved art and they wanted to use it as a means to educate people. The monks created numerous hand-painted manuscripts with gospels from the bible.
Pre-Romanesque, they were already building churches on the plans of a basilica (a typical Roman city hall)
Normans - Huge advancements in architecture with the first stone ceilings being built.
Tunnel / Barrel Vaults
- tremendous pillars which carry an arch
- cross-ribbed arches with lighter material in the triangular sections.
Last Judgement by Gislebertus
- sculpture part of architecture
- Byzantine influence - hierarchy of status - God is represented much larger than other figures
The Gothic period brought along two advances in architecture - the pointed arches and the flying buttresses.
The pointed arch
- these could now vary in height by making them as flat or pointed according to the requirements of the structure. They also served a religious function - it was believed that the pointed structures would help them reach the heavens.
the flying butresses
- external arches attached to the exterior of the building that counter-forced the outward pressure of the walls.
the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery.
Amiens Cathedral, France
The Miracle of Loaves and Fishes
Early Christian art mosaic
still shows knowledge of three-dimensionality with the use of shadows
remains simplistic to give a clear message.
c.400 - 900 AD
Emperor Costantine calmed down the situation of the west between the Barbarians and Romans.
Christianity spread and religion managed to calm things down.
No sculpture - considered as polytheistic (the belief in multiple deities) used by Greeks.
Art remained simplistic with one main function - to teach the illiterate biblical stories.
Early Christian Art
Chist the Pantocrator - Basilica on Montreal close to Palermo
God is represented in the golden background
pointing finger to God (divinity)
Christ = majestic, omnipotent, king of the universe (reflecting the Christian preachings of the time).
hierarchy - Madonna and all other saints are placed below Christ
he started rereading the classics, breaking away from Byzantine conservatism.
he gave way to Renaissance ideals with the introduction of
(adding human value to his figures - emotions),
(abiding by the classical standards of human proportions to make his figures as natural as possible),
(creating an illusion of space by overlapping figures and devising laws of geometric perspective).
With Giotto, Art was brough out of the medieval darkness.
Lamentation of Christ, Scrovegni Chapel, Padua
all figures are of the same proportion - no longer abiding to the Byzantine hierarchy
all figures are expressing emotions of sorrow.
Florence = the birth place to this style
it is interdisciplinary - close relationship between art and science, between mythology and Christianity.
Artists were no longer anonymous but worked for their reputation and high social status.
High competition among city states
The Feast of Herod,
spatial illusion through gradations in the bass relief
high contrasts of emotions from one hall to another
Holy Trinity by Masaccio
hierarchy of status - God, Madonna and St.John and the patrons at the lowest plane
Birth of Venus, Botticelli
secular work - a celebration of love of Giuliano Medici for Simonetta Vespucci
full of movement
based on mythological gods
The Arnolfini Marriage Group, Jan Van Eyck
the artist serves as a testimony of an engagement
oil painting - lucidity of colours and allowed more reworking and therefore, more details.
an example of Northern Renaissance
16th Century Rome
Artists were considered to have divine skills as they are assisted by God
The period of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael.
High Renaissance Period
Leonardo da Vinci
a genius - scientist, engineer, sculptor, architect, painter
interested in anatomy - dissected corpses
left a number of unfinished works
sketched a lot and used to write from right to left so that no one could read his notes = high competition among artists
sfumato - blending of light and dark tones (chiaroscuro)
aerial / atmospheric perspective in the background.
for the Milan monks' refectory (where they ate)
grouping of threes
high drama in the reactions of the apostles
a natural source of light
aerial and geometric perspective
Virgin of the Rocks
shows his interest in geology - details in the rocks
Vasari - he has divine artistic qualities
studied sculpture at the Medici gardens - hence his affiliation with classical art
he felt more of a sculptor than a painter - he signed his works as Michelangelo Lo Scultore
he had several arguments with the pope - proves the high status that these artists had.
typical Greek nude
relaxed look and fearless
political symbol - whoever had to rule Florence was to defend the city from the enemies just as David did to his people, saving them from Goliath
The Creation of Adam
part of the Sistine Chapel's cycle of frescoes
typical contrapposto figure
high humanism - God and Adam are of the same proportions ; God extends his hands to touch Adam
Adam is awakening from a long sleep
full of emotions
managed to overcome the challenge of portraying the large figure of Christ over the laps of the Madonna by representing his figure as sagging between her legs.
studied the works of established artists like Leonardo and Michelangelo and got highly influenced by them - brightness of colour of Michelangelo and sfumato technique of Leonardo
representation of a crowd
discussing the mystery of the Trinity
School of Athens
in Camera della Segnatura
Plato and Aristotle are framed by the arch to stand out from the rest of the crowd
He included his master painters in his work to show his admiration - Plato = Leonardo da Vinci, Heraclites = Michelangelo
Baroque Art c.1525-1700 AD
comes from the name of an irregular and elaborate pearl, probably denoting the irregularity and elaboration in its style.
Its main stylistics are:
more movement in compositions
pathos, depicting sufferings, feelings and extreme violence
high drama - scenes of ecstasies and martyrdoms
- chairoscuro - light is directed from one source
- high drama
- arch composition= classical influence
- the only signed work by Caravaggio - signed with his own blood.
Ecstasy of St.Theresa
- high drama in the moan of St.Theresa
- the drapes of the angel and the saint reflect the inner turmoil
Modern Art c.1850-1970s AD
presenting commonplace subjects to bring about democratic ideals in their work
Gustave Courbet -
The Stone Breakers
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe
elimination of details
preference to outdoor painting
warm colours in areas in light
cool colours in areas in shade
interested more in the atmosphere surrounding the subject than the actual subject.
Bal du Moulin de la Galette
independent artistic styles that had the lose use of brushwork in common
they sought a deeper meaning in the work than that of the Impressionists.
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
Mountains in Provence
Vincent Van Gogh
Bedroom in Arles
Les Fauves = wild beasts in French, referring to their wild and illogical use of colour
bright, violent colours
Pont de Charing Cross
deformation of nature
intensification of colours as metaphors of deep emotions
The Sick Child
Study of Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X
simultaneity (multiple views)
passage - interpenetration of different planes
collage - cut and pasting of paper onto canvas
Femme tenant une mandoline
Still life with Harp and Violin
Les Demoiselles des Avignon
the celebration of the modern world
rejection of traditional iconventions - they wanted to free Italy and welcome modernisation
dynamism in painting
speed becomes the subject of the work
inspired by automobiles and its high speed
Unique Forms of Continuity
Abstract speed, the car has passed
Dog on a leash
the manner and means become the subject of the work
geometric / lyrical abstraction
Composition C with Red, yellow and blue
derived from popular art - logos, product packaging, comics, advetising, magazines
very bright colours
repetition of the same subject - mass-production
Just what is it that makes today's homes, so different, so appealing?
relies highly on laws of perspective to create illusion
movement in a painting
Campbell Soup Cans