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history of art timeline

a review of all the art periods with the main characteristics and the artworks we discussed in class
by

Olivianne Farrugia

on 23 May 2014

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Transcript of history of art timeline

History of Art Timeline
Ancient Egyptian Art c.3000-1000BC
Medieval Art
A title given by Renaissance artists as they felt that their own age was more civilised and advanced.
the time of barbarian invasions, crusades...
the time of plague
the time of Church's dominance on western culture
Renaissance Art c.1400-1525 AD
comes from the word Rinascimento - to renew. Artists saw themselves as a recovery of a lost art.
however, they added a new aspect of humanism - man became the measure of all things. The representation of the divine figures became proportional with that of patrons and worshipers. Divine figures started showing feelings. They are now human-like with human feelings.

Ancient Greek Art
Greek and Roman Antiquity c.1000BC-300AD
Marked by 4 main eras:
1.
Geometric
- geometric patterns on vases
2.
Archaic
- statues of nudes following symmetrical forms in slight contrapposto- Kouros (male statues) and Kore (female statues)
3.
Classical
- golden age of Greece dominated by movement and idealised anatomical details. Architectural orders - Doric, Ionic, Corinthian
4.
Hellenistic
- additional drama and movement
Kouros and Kore
Geometry in Greek Vases
Discus Thrower by Myron
Architectural Orders within the Classical Period
Doric Order
Corinthian Order
Ionic Order
Classical
Hellenistic
Loacoon and his Sons
Ancient Roman Art
Worked at a political propoganda - to prove their power and dominance
warriors and generals replaced the nude athletes
it was historical, commemorative and narrative
aimed at the resemblance of the emperor (no longer idealisation of figures) - death mask
Resemblance
Emperor Vespesian
Political
Propoganda
commemoration
of a won battle
Trojan Column
Monks loved art and they wanted to use it as a means to educate people. The monks created numerous hand-painted manuscripts with gospels from the bible.
Monasticism
Illuminated Manuscripts
Romanesque Period
Pre-Romanesque, they were already building churches on the plans of a basilica (a typical Roman city hall)
Normans - Huge advancements in architecture with the first stone ceilings being built.
Tunnel / Barrel Vaults
- tremendous pillars which carry an arch
Ribbed Vaults
- cross-ribbed arches with lighter material in the triangular sections.
tunnel vault

cross-ribbed vault
Last Judgement by Gislebertus
Romanesque Sculpture:
- sculpture part of architecture
- Byzantine influence - hierarchy of status - God is represented much larger than other figures

Gothic Period
The Gothic period brought along two advances in architecture - the pointed arches and the flying buttresses.

-
The pointed arch
- these could now vary in height by making them as flat or pointed according to the requirements of the structure. They also served a religious function - it was believed that the pointed structures would help them reach the heavens.

-
the flying butresses
- external arches attached to the exterior of the building that counter-forced the outward pressure of the walls.

the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery.
Amiens Cathedral, France
The Miracle of Loaves and Fishes
Early Christian art mosaic
highly symmetrical
still shows knowledge of three-dimensionality with the use of shadows
remains simplistic to give a clear message.
c.400 - 900 AD

Emperor Costantine calmed down the situation of the west between the Barbarians and Romans.
Christianity spread and religion managed to calm things down.
No sculpture - considered as polytheistic (the belief in multiple deities) used by Greeks.
Art remained simplistic with one main function - to teach the illiterate biblical stories.
Early Christian Art
Chist the Pantocrator - Basilica on Montreal close to Palermo
Romanesque Painting:
God is represented in the golden background
pointing finger to God (divinity)
Christ = majestic, omnipotent, king of the universe (reflecting the Christian preachings of the time).
hierarchy - Madonna and all other saints are placed below Christ

Giotto
he started rereading the classics, breaking away from Byzantine conservatism.
he gave way to Renaissance ideals with the introduction of
HUMANISM
(adding human value to his figures - emotions),
NATURALISM
(abiding by the classical standards of human proportions to make his figures as natural as possible),
REALISM
(creating an illusion of space by overlapping figures and devising laws of geometric perspective).
With Giotto, Art was brough out of the medieval darkness.
Lamentation of Christ, Scrovegni Chapel, Padua
all figures are of the same proportion - no longer abiding to the Byzantine hierarchy
all figures are expressing emotions of sorrow.
Early Renaissance
Florence = the birth place to this style
it is interdisciplinary - close relationship between art and science, between mythology and Christianity.
Artists were no longer anonymous but worked for their reputation and high social status.
High competition among city states

The Feast of Herod,
Donatello
geometric perspective
spatial illusion through gradations in the bass relief
high contrasts of emotions from one hall to another
Holy Trinity by Masaccio
pyramidal composition
hierarchy of status - God, Madonna and St.John and the patrons at the lowest plane
Birth of Venus, Botticelli
secular work - a celebration of love of Giuliano Medici for Simonetta Vespucci
full of movement
based on mythological gods
The Arnolfini Marriage Group, Jan Van Eyck
the artist serves as a testimony of an engagement
oil painting - lucidity of colours and allowed more reworking and therefore, more details.
an example of Northern Renaissance
16th Century Rome
Papal patronage
Artists were considered to have divine skills as they are assisted by God
The period of Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael.
High Renaissance Period
Leonardo da Vinci
a genius - scientist, engineer, sculptor, architect, painter
interested in anatomy - dissected corpses
left a number of unfinished works
sketched a lot and used to write from right to left so that no one could read his notes = high competition among artists
Mona Lisa
subtle smile
sfumato - blending of light and dark tones (chiaroscuro)
aerial / atmospheric perspective in the background.
Last Supper
for the Milan monks' refectory (where they ate)
grouping of threes
oil painting
high drama in the reactions of the apostles
a natural source of light
aerial and geometric perspective
Virgin of the Rocks
shows his interest in geology - details in the rocks
aerial perspective
sfumato technique
Michelangelo Buonarroti
Vasari - he has divine artistic qualities
studied sculpture at the Medici gardens - hence his affiliation with classical art
he felt more of a sculptor than a painter - he signed his works as Michelangelo Lo Scultore
he had several arguments with the pope - proves the high status that these artists had.
David
typical Greek nude
relaxed look and fearless
political symbol - whoever had to rule Florence was to defend the city from the enemies just as David did to his people, saving them from Goliath
The Creation of Adam
part of the Sistine Chapel's cycle of frescoes
typical contrapposto figure
high humanism - God and Adam are of the same proportions ; God extends his hands to touch Adam
Adam is awakening from a long sleep
La Pietà
full of emotions
managed to overcome the challenge of portraying the large figure of Christ over the laps of the Madonna by representing his figure as sagging between her legs.
Raphael Sanzio
studied the works of established artists like Leonardo and Michelangelo and got highly influenced by them - brightness of colour of Michelangelo and sfumato technique of Leonardo
La Disputa
perspective
representation of a crowd
discussing the mystery of the Trinity

School of Athens
in Camera della Segnatura
Plato and Aristotle are framed by the arch to stand out from the rest of the crowd
He included his master painters in his work to show his admiration - Plato = Leonardo da Vinci, Heraclites = Michelangelo
Baroque Art c.1525-1700 AD
comes from the name of an irregular and elaborate pearl, probably denoting the irregularity and elaboration in its style.

Its main stylistics are:
more movement in compositions
pathos, depicting sufferings, feelings and extreme violence
chiaroscuro
high drama - scenes of ecstasies and martyrdoms
- chairoscuro - light is directed from one source
- high drama
- arch composition= classical influence
- the only signed work by Caravaggio - signed with his own blood.
Caravaggio
Gianlorenzo Bernini
Ecstasy of St.Theresa
- high drama in the moan of St.Theresa
- the drapes of the angel and the saint reflect the inner turmoil

Modern Art c.1850-1970s AD
Realism
photographic perfection
presenting commonplace subjects to bring about democratic ideals in their work
Gustave Courbet -
The Stone Breakers
Edouard Manet
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
Edouard Manet
Le Dejeuner sur l'Herbe
Impressionism
elimination of details
preference to outdoor painting
warm colours in areas in light
cool colours in areas in shade
interested more in the atmosphere surrounding the subject than the actual subject.
Claude Monet
Impression Sunrise
Claude Monet
Haystack Series
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Bal du Moulin de la Galette
Post-Impressionism
independent artistic styles that had the lose use of brushwork in common
they sought a deeper meaning in the work than that of the Impressionists.
Georges Seurat
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
Paul Cezanne
Mountains in Provence
Vincent Van Gogh
Bedroom in Arles
Fauvism
Les Fauves = wild beasts in French, referring to their wild and illogical use of colour
bright, violent colours
Henri Matisse
Mme Matisse
Andre Derain
Pont de Charing Cross
Expressionism
deformation of nature
shocking subjects
intensification of colours as metaphors of deep emotions
Edvard Munch
The Sick Child
Francis Bacon
Study of Velazquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X
Edvard Munch
The Scream
Cubism
geometricity
simultaneity (multiple views)
passage - interpenetration of different planes
collage - cut and pasting of paper onto canvas
mostly monochrome
fragmented reality
Georges Braque
Femme tenant une mandoline
Pablo Picasso
Still life with Harp and Violin
Pablo Picasso
Les Demoiselles des Avignon
Futurism
the celebration of the modern world
rejection of traditional iconventions - they wanted to free Italy and welcome modernisation
dynamism in painting
speed becomes the subject of the work
inspired by automobiles and its high speed
Umberto Boccioni
Unique Forms of Continuity
in Space
Giacomo Balla
Abstract speed, the car has passed
Giacomo Balla
Dog on a leash
Abstract Art
the manner and means become the subject of the work
non-representational art
geometric / lyrical abstraction
Piet Mondrian
Composition C with Red, yellow and blue
Wassily Kandinsky
Composition VIII
Jackson Pollock,
No.8
Pop Art
derived from popular art - logos, product packaging, comics, advetising, magazines
very bright colours
repetition of the same subject - mass-production
Richard Hamilton
Just what is it that makes today's homes, so different, so appealing?
Roy Lichtenstein
Whaam!
Op Art
optical illusion
non-representational
geometric
relies highly on laws of perspective to create illusion
movement in a painting
Victor Vasarely
Quadrature
Bridget Riley,
Intake
Andy Warhol
Campbell Soup Cans
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