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For AS physics
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on 23 May 2011

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#### Transcript of G491 OCR Advancing Physics

G491 Physics Waves velocity = frequency x wavelength Frequncy = 1/period Speed = Distance moved / Time taken Transverse waves travel at 90 degrees to the direction of travel Polarization is onlt allowing directional waves through, so only certan transverse waves Materials Youngs Modulus How much a material can deform befor plastic deformation occours Young's Modulus = Stress/ Strain stess = Force/Area strain = Extension / original length Most materials follow the same up and down on a stress/strain graph... Rubber follows a hysteresis loop. Lenses Refractive index = speed of light in vacuum / speed of light in the material C = 3x10^8 Power = 1 / focal length Measured in dioptres You can use the disances to find the curviture... just 1/... curvature after = curvature before + curvature added by lens (1/V) = (1/U) + (1/f) Magnification = size of image / size of object m = v/u P = 1/f V = f E = Stress = F/A Strain = L / L Imaging Binary ON (1)
OFF (0) Base 2 No. of possibilities calculated by doing power of 2

IE. 2^No of bits 8 bits = 1 Byte 4 bits = 1 Nibble Altering images +/- a number to the pixels increases/decreases the brightness multiply or divide the number of pixels makes the image brighter and increases contrast/ darker and decrease contrast. False colour, change the meaning of numbers to highlight sections. Reduce noise with replacing the pixel with the median of surrounding pixels The laplace rule finds edges:

Multiply by 4
Subtract value of pixels above, below, left and right
Any pixel not on an edge goes black. Sampling should be twice maximum frequency Electricity Resistance = V/I
Conductance = I/V P = IV = I^2R Circuits Series Parrallel Rt = R1 + R2 + R3 Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 Potential dividers are just a ratio! Hooke's Law Extension of a wire is proportional to the load or force F=Ke Resistance of materials R = L/A Ohm meters 1/R = conductance = siemens per meter
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