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Chapter 19: The New Urban Nation, 1865-1910
Transcript of Chapter 19: The New Urban Nation, 1865-1910
2.Retailers create large department stores
a.Mainly directed toward a large middle-class female clientele
3.Marshall Field shopping emporium was the first mall structure. Architecture 1.Buildings started to push upward toward the skies.
2.The church spire dominated the skyline at the time.
a.Elevators were invented
b.Use of iron rather than masonry
c.Bessemer process=architects used steel as a skeleton for the building.
4.WoolWorth Building was the tallest building in the world in 1913.
Neighborhoods 1.The jewel in every city’s crown was the area of large mansions and manicured grounds.
2.The Industrial Revolution swelled the ranks of the middle class.
3.Living conditions were terrible for the poor and working-class
a.Conditions were especially bad on the Lower East Side of Manhattan.
b.The Lower East Side of Manhattan had the highest density of people.
4.Urban Tenement houses were generally congested and filthy.
a.A single building would house as many as 150 people.
b.Lewis Mumford wrote in Sticks and Stones (1924) “raised bad housing into an art.”
a. gabling houses
6.In 1917 The Supreme Court declared residential segregation ordinances unconstitutional.
a.Most cities found informal methods to achieve the same end.
Immigrant Communities Communities 1.Immigrants tried to recreate their sense of community by forming urban enclaves.
2.Close-knit concentrations of immigrants
a.New York’s Lower East Side
b.Boston’s North End
c.Chicago’s West Side
d.Los Angeles’s east-side barrio
3.Journalist Jacob Riis claimed that a map of New York City in 1980 color coordinated the nationality.
Occupations 1.Immigrants clustered in occupations.
ii.Pennsylvania’s steel mills
iii.Mining and industrial regions in western Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois.
i. small businesses
i.70% Garment workers Family 1.Parents exercised considerable power over the career paths of their children, often forcing boys and girls to leave school early to work
2.The need to earn a living forced family members to mute differences and stress cooperation.
3.Girls faced the added responsibility of performing household chores and caring for younger siblings.
Church 1.The traditions and rituals of the church served as the critical cultural lin to the old world.
2.Incoming ethnic groups established their own churches that respected parishioners’ native languages and distinctive cultural practices.
Saloon 1.Patrons enjoyed a break from the harsh demands of everyday life.
a.they played cards and other games
c.exchanged tops on jobs
d.held union or fraternal meetings
2.Saloons provided the only free public toilets in the city
3.Many offered their customers free lunch and newspapers.
4.Saloonkeepers also cashed checks and loaned money to regulars.
A Democracy of Amusement Vaudeville house was the most popular new form of entertainment. 1.Edwin Milton Royle wrote in Scribner’s Magazine that the vaudeville theatre is an American invention.
2.It was open six days a week and charged only ten cents for admissions.
3.The vaudeville operators had to design programs that appealed to a diverse audience
a.Trained animal routines
c.Comic skits of urban life
e.Acts by ventriloquists, jugglers, strongmen, and magicians
f.Flying trapeze artists were “flash” finale
Theatres 1.New York had more theaters than any city in the world
2.Middle-class Americans flocked to theatres.
Amusement Parks 1.In 1870 amusement parks were unheard of in America
2.By 1900 they were a standard feature of every large city
3.The most famous was New York’s Coney Island.
4.Women looked fondly towards amusement parks
African Americans 1.African Americans were systematically excluded from equal participation.
2.Many could only buy unfavorable seats.
3.The new American entertainment built a sense of community among white urbanites by highlighting their differences.
4.Entertainers used humor and insult to reinforce the wall that separated the races.
5.Many white performers produced a flood of “darky shows” and “coon songs.”
6.More than six hundred “coon songs” were published during the 1890s
Block B Spectator Sports •city dwellers craved new forms of physical recreation, bored by work in factories/offices/stores
•cycling, roller-skating swept the country
•golf, lawn tennis, & ice hockey came later and appealed to the upper middle class and upper class
•basketball was the preferred sport of the working class community as it required little equipment and could be played on urban playgrounds
•myriads of people began to become spectators at professional sporting events
•boxing and basketball attracted crowds, mainly of the working class
•football was adopted as the premier spectator sport of the upper class
•Thanksgiving Day Princeton-Yale college football game marked the beginning of New York’s winter social season
•baseball then emerged as the most popular new urban sport
•William H. Cammeyer built the first enclosed baseball field in country
•in 1876 eight teams formed the NLPBC (National League of Professional Baseball Clubs)
•men and boys began to emulate professionals on vacant lots and empty streets
•many believed that baseball would erode class differences
•eased class tensions, but reinforced racial differences
•integrated teams were common in the north
•blacks were shunned from the ballparks
•black fans eventually stayed away from the minor and major leagues until the 1940s
The Metropolitan Press •technological innovations in printing and manufacturing newspapers combined with the growing public need for information created a new form of journalism - exposure
•steam press and use of paper made of wood allowed printers to produce more at a lower cost
•most of nineteenth century, newspapers had limited circulation and were used mainly for political propaganda
•after Civil War, newspapers attracted readers with human-interested stories & investigative articles
•coverage of urban affairs grew, which formed the separate sections of the newspaper we now know of today
•publishers tried reaching out to non-English speaking immigrants by publishing cartoons and comics
•newspapers also began to expand to attract female readers, including sections on fashion and etiquette
•in 1840 readers could choose from 138 daily and 1,141 weekly newspapers
•by 1900 newspapers grew to 2,910 dailies and 15,813 weeklies
•published more newspapers than the rest of the world combined
•foreign language papers were also printed, including 522 in German, 103 in Italian, 84 in Spanish, & 17 in Japanese, 1,323 in total by 1917
Literature and the Arts •new social environment influenced artistic development
•in contrast to the art that romanticized American landscape and people, late-century works highlighted the darker aspects of American life
•Mark Twain gave distinct realism to American literature
•The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was Twain’s most famous work, critically exploring the existing social order in America
•other writers influenced by Social Darwinism developed a style of literary naturalism
•these writers preached fidelity to the details of contemporary life, but informed their novels with a tone of pessimistic determinism
•fascination with urban realism influenced artists who tried to capture the frenetic pace and harsh reality of human city life
•key figure in this movement - Robert Henri - who used his position as head of Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts to train an entire generation of artists laster to be dubbed as the Ashcan School
Public Education •by 1890 most cities with large immigrant populations mandated compulsory schooling between certain ages (usually eight to fourteen)
•attendance in public schools increased by roughly eleven million
•number of public schools increased from five hundred to ten thousand
•some argued that public schools would help immigrants abandon old ways and assimilate into American culture
•public schools became a melting pot of races and all students learned the value of good citizenship, patriotism, and respect for authority
•many immigrant parents violated school attendance laws because they depended on their children’s earnings
•they also established private or church schools, worried that public school threatened their cultural or religious traditions
•cities with large Catholic populations saw that many school-age children were enrolled in parochial schools
•increasing numbers of Americans attending secondary school called for a greater demand of higher education
•as a result of Morrill Act of 1862, large donations of wealthy industrialists led to the creation of a number of universities
•by 1900 five hundred colleges and universities served 232,000 undergraduates and 5,700 graduate students
•leading universities added subjects such as economics, political science, and modern languages to the already offered Latin, Greek, mathematics, rhetoric, and theology
•private and public professional schools created graduate disciplines in law, architecture, business, medicine, engineering, and education
•though the demand for education in the U.S. was high, a British observer mocked the system, belittling American universities and saying that English, French, and German institutions were far more superior
Block C Challenging Domesticity Defending "American" Culture Purity Crusade Public Education a number of changes provided American women with the opportunity to challenge traditional notions of gender roles
Women had control over reproduction, with less children; also there was a rise in divorce rate
there were more options to receive an education and seek professional employment
career women could address important public issues like schooling the youth, tending to the poor, and improving the health of women and children
there were female-dominated institutions, like the General Federation of Women's Clubs for cultural events
African-American women had to form their own clubs
to show freedom, women started to ride bicycles some thought foreigners would dilute the native American racial shock, while others thought they were threats to their jobs
they did not want immigrants to have more children than the Protestants
there were many new etiquette manuals and new institutions for the respectable arts
they reformed the urban landscape
Protestants wanted to extend influence over numbers of Catholics and Jews there was a purity movement that launched an assault on vice districts
there was initially an attack on prostitution, then promoting religious observance
with the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Anti Saloon League, they went against alcohol
the American Protection Association was an anti-immigrant campaign
the Chinese suffered the worst natavist attacks citis with large immigrant populations mandated schooling
immigrant families violated this because they needed the income of their children
immigrants that thought public school threatened their culture started private schools
there were land grant colleges after the Morrill Act; there was a bigger need for higher education, so there were more colleges
there were graduate programs in numerous scholarly disciplines