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Transcript of Deviant Behavior
Social deviation performs some positive functions, which are as follows (Clinard, 1979):
Positive Functions of Social Deviation
Specific Kinds of Deviant Behavior
Tuesday, January 2015
Theories of Deviant Behavior
refer to system of reward and punishment in order to ensure that norms are followed and expectations met.
Sanctions as Means of Social Control
The following are the types of deviant behavior and the modes of individual adaptation (Merton, 1938):
Types of Deviant Behavior and the Means of Individual Adaptation
There are various informal and formal sanctions as means of social control in the Philippines.
Social Control of Deviant Behavior in the Philippines
Nature and Meaning of Deviant Behavior
Several sociological theories advanced to explain deviance as a social phenomenon include the following:
Are used for violations of formalized norms in organizations of associations and carried out by people with legal and moral authority to enforce them. Examples are: penal laws, fines, death penalty.
Are gossips, unfavorable, and favorable public opinion, giving or withdrawing of affection, love or friendship; verbal admiration or criticism, reprimands or verbal commendations.
are those who accept the culturally approved goals but disregard the institutional means to achieve them.
are those who give up the cultural goals but follow the prescribed norms.
are those who abandon both the cultural goals and the prescribed means to achieve them.
are those who reject both the societal goals and the prescribed means to achieve them but try to set up new norms or goals.
Government officials and low-wage earners who commit graft and corruption to achieve a higher standard of living.
A religious fanatic an employee who reports to work but does nothing about it.
Drug addicts, Hippies, Alcoholics
New People's Army
While conformists accept both culturally approved goals and means, deviants reject either these goals or the means of achieving them, or both.
Scientists, geniuses, philosophers, inventors, saints and martyrs, people with exceptional talents in the arts could be classified as non-conformists who seek to create new goals and new means of attaining them.
1. A number of social deviations are the outcomes of legitimate and conventional controls.
2. Social deviance makes people aware of the possible dangers emanating from such a deviation.
3. The recognition of deviance makes the group aware of the limits of tolerance they will have for some standards or norms.
4. A certain amount of deviance may ensure the safety of some persons and minimize the strain of society.
5. Deviation may serve as a warning device for some imperfections or faults in the society which may cause discontent and unrest and lead to changes that intensify morale and efficiency.
1. Pakikisama or Concession
2. Gossip, ridicule, ostracism, reprimands
3. Favorable or unfavorable public opinion
4. Bestowal or denial of affection
5. Approval and praise
6. Mob Violence
7. Verbal labels or censures, such as immortal, sinful, vicious, anti-social, unethical, brusque, grotesque, obnoxious, distasteful, preposterous, ignoramus, barbaric, uncivilized, disgusting, brutal, unconscionable, satanic, etc.
8. Leveling technique or sociostat. (People who publicly takes credit for an act or claim any kind of superiority in the group is cut down to size).
9. Curbing of antisocial attitudes by ascribing undesirable statuses to deviants.
1. Government Sanctions-
in the forms of penal or criminal laws, administrative codes, civil service rules and regulations, statutes, ordinances; scrolls, certificate and plaques of merits and recognition for exemplary services.
2. Business Groups Sanctions
- in the forms of promotions, bonuses, certificates of merits, citations or awards, suspensions and expulsions.
3. Church or Religious Groups Sanctions-
in the forms of promises of salvation or a future state of euphoria, penance, withholding of religious services at death, or excommunication.
4. Clubs and Civic Organizations Sanctions
- in the forms of awards and citations for achievement and meritorious service, or fines, temporary suspension of membership, or expulsion from the organization.
is any behavior that the members of a social group define as violating the established social norms. In other words, there must be a social audience that will determine whether a behavior is deviant or not.
What is considered deviant in one society may not be considered as such in another
What is deviant in a particular society at a particular place and time may not be considered as deviant at a future time.
ADIZAS, JOE DANIEL
1. Infractions of the Sex Code and Laws
such as zoophilia or beastiality, pedophilia, necrophilia, nymphomania, sex-mania, exhibitionism, nudism, voyeurism, sadism, and masochism.
2. Infractions on Life, Liberty, Property, and against the State
Violations of human rights
Criminality which also includes: estafa, libel, perjury, arson, theft, robbery, smuggling, murder, homicide, parricide, genocide, kidnapping, etc.
3. Infractions against Self (Victimless Crime)
Mendicancy or beggary
Mental and psychological aberrations
1. Social Pathology
Deviant behavior is caused by people with actual physical and mental illness, malfunctions or deformities.
Education, re-education, hospitalization, rehabilitation, imprisonment, capital punishment.
2. Biological Theory
Deviant behavior is a result of aberrant genetic traits in such cases as mental illness, criminality, and homosexuality.
Education, re-education, hospitalization, rehabilitation, imprisonment, capital punishment, and behavior modification.
reported that there are “animalistic” physical patterns found in criminals, savages and apes
Debunked Lombroso’s theory
Witkin (1976) found that prisoners with an XYY chromosome pattern or with an extra Y chromosome might predispose themselves to deviance.
3. Psychological Theory
Deviant Behavior is brought about by deviant impulses toward sexuality and aggression.
Psychiatric, psychological counseling, hospitalization and rehabilitation; shock therapy.
4. Social Disorganization Theory
Deviant behavior is caused by the breakdown of the norms, laws, mores, and other important values of the people.
Modification or rehabilitation in the part of the system which suffers from disorganization.
5. Labeling Theory
Society’s labeling on certain behaviors as deviant causes deviant behavior. Behaviors are labeled or tagged as proper or improper, moral or immoral, good or bad. Behaviors which transgress the social norms and values are labeled or socially defined as deviant; they are, in turn, sanctioned by ostracism and punishment. Behaviors which conform to the norms are given positive sanctions, such as rewards and commendations.
Relabeling and de-labeling certain people as “criminals”, “prostitutes”, “homosexuals”, “schizophrenic”, etc. once considered as deviant.
6. Anomie Theory of Structural Stress Theory
The social structure plays a significant influence in the sense that it prompts people to engage in deviant behavior. Equilibrium exist when people who use the accepted means achieve socially approved goals and experience satisfaction. When the goals and the means are not in harmony, anomie or normlessness results.
Introduced the concept of Anomie
Giving access to approved goals; equal opportunity for all.
7. Value Conflict Theory
Conflicting values, vested interests, and scare resources between conflicting individuals or groups cause deviant behavior.
Equating or balancing the power between conflicting individuals or groups through collective bargaining (CBA); peace and negotiations, truce ceasefire and sharing of power.
8. Conflict Theory
Deviant behavior is caused by an unjust social structure, a partisan social order where there is unequal distribution of wealth, power and prestige in the society.
The moderates propose more reforms in the various social institutions; the radicals advocate a sweeping transformation or a revolutionary approach, an overhaul of the existing unjust social structure in order to bring about a more or less equal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige in the new social order.
• According to Marx, the social arrangements and legal order serve the interests of the ruling or governing class and are stacked against the poor, the marginalized and culturally disadvantaged members of the society.
9. Cultural Transmission or Differential Association Theory
Deviance is created through the socialization or transmission of norms within a community or group.
Education, re-education, role-models of successful people, hospitalization, rehabilitation, imprisonment, fines, censures, capital and punishment.