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Qian Ye-EDF2031 Ass2

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Qian Ye

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Transcript of Qian Ye-EDF2031 Ass2

EDF2031 Assignment 2
Presented by Qian Ye (Zoe)
My pedagogical approaches
Parents are best helpers who give you suggestions on a quality program for Aboriginal students and inspire you with great ideas about how to include Aboriginal perspectives for non-Aboriginal students (Harrison, 2011).
Effective approaches to developing the Koorie Education Learning Plan (KELP)
Think about how you would use the whole KELP process as a positive opportunity to engage with the families of Indigenous students (rather than it being regarded by them as a way of singling out their child).
Effective Strategies
Reflection: My culturally appropriate teaching style
My approaches to engage with the families and caregivers of Indigenous students
Understand them
Due to their different backgrounds, parents of Aboriginal students may feel uncomfortable when they come to school and sometimes even feel reluctant to engage in school activities (Harrison, 2011, p. 168)
Your manner and method of communication matters!
act like you know what is best for their children
look parents up and down when they enter the school
ask them to take part in formal activities in the first place
put forward your opinion too quick
keep complaining about their children's bad behavior
feeling of discomfort arising from their own experiences of school
feeling overwhelmed by the use of Standard English in a formal setting
feeling overwhelmed by the formality of school meetings and procedures
lack of understanding of the education system and how it works
feeling unable to make valuable contributions
Something you need to know when you speak with the parents
We pay our respects to the Bunerong people of the Kulin Nations and acknowledge them as the Traditional Owners of this country.
We also pay respects to Elders and teachers past and present. Our lives continue to be enriched the generosity and wisdom of these people.
#3. Provide a friendly school environment
Strong support for
Aboriginal cultures
that usually evidenced in the appearance of the school is an extremely important indicator of school desire to be involved in the community (Harrison, 2011).
The symbolic such as artworks on the display wall, Aboriginal books in the shelves and library, or Aboriginal flags can make the school more welcoming to Indigenous students and their families. It also enables Aboriginal students feel more connected than isolated from non-Aboriginal students.
Involve them in your classroom

spending time to know the parents before you ask them for help
build up relationship and trust with them
understand what they know and whether they are willing to share with the class
you also need to consult the various departmental protocols for working with Aboriginal people
Home visit
the theories that inform your teaching practice are certainly relevant to your pedagogical approach. Be sure to expand on your theories, however, to show how you have made the link to Indigenous learners and/or issues. E.g., constructivism is a nice theory, but why is that appropriate for Indigenous learners and issues, given the sorts of matters we have examined this semester (e.g., historical context, political context, curricular context, etc.)? How do you anticipate yourself making such connections? Providing such insights would make for a more robust presentation of your overall pedagogical approach for this particular assignment.

Develop activities that include family members who may not otherwise get to share in students learning experiences (e.g. Grandparents Day, siblings and cousins)
What is Koorie Education?
What is Koorie Education?
According to the Victorian Department of Education and Training (2015), the purpose of this policy is to support schools to provide quality and meaningful education to Koorie students.
What is KELP?
What is KELP?
Wandihnu and the Old Dugong
Elizabeth Wymarra, Wandihnu Wymarra
Illustrated by Benjamin Hodges
This story talks about a young girl who has grown up in the city and who is about to return to Badu Island in the Torres Strait to stay with her aka (grandmother). It is time for Wandihnu to learn about the customs of her people. The night before she leaves, Wandihnu drifts off to sleep and dreams about the journey, about her aka, and about a very special friend.
Age group: lower primary
Additional resources: Children's Books about Australian Indigenous Peoples
•Australia is a multicultural nation with a large population of immigrants from diverse cultural groups and people of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Santoro, 2009). Due to the different language and cultural background, Aboriginal students in ‘mainstream’ classrooms may find it difficult to adapt themselves to the school life and hard to make sense of the learning content (Bailey, 1990). Therefore, instead of taking an assimilation approach that force the Aboriginal students to learn something not making sense to them, I would like to take a sociocultural approach to develop more cultural appropriate teaching practices for them.
What is socialcultural approach?
Sociocultural approach places a great emphasis on the social context of children’s learning and development (Follari, 2011). It not only reveals the influence of adults and peers on individual learning, but also points out the cultural impacts on teaching instruction and learning process.
For sociocultural constructivist like Vygotsky, "knowledge is socially coconstructed and then internalised; as such, the social and cultural environment heavily influences knowledge construction" (Follari, 2011, p. 78). Another theorist, Urie Bronfenbrenner emphasised that children's development is not isolated; instead, he suggested their developments are shaped by many direct and indirect influences. These influences are organised in a system with different layers which Urie Bronfenbrenner called it ecological model of child development (Lindon, 2010).
#1. Child
Why is sociocultural approach?
Socio-cultural theories emphasise the central role that families and cultural groups play in children's learning and the importance of respectful relations and provide insight into social and cultural contexts of learning and development.
Theory like Bronfenbrenner's ecological model illustrates the strong network of services and programs that exist to support children's learning and development and it is one of the underpinning theories in the VEYLDF (DEECD, 2011).
This provides guideline for teachers when planning for children's learning and development. It reminds the reacher to focus on the children as a whole that includes not only their own interests and preferences, but also the cultural, language, family and community background behind them. Therefore, bring in families, communities and other significant people in educational decision making are of significance.
How the socialcultural approach informs my future planning and teaching?
#1. Child
#2. Family/caregivers
#3. Education setting
#4. Educators
#5. Community
#5. Community
#4. Educators
#2. Families/caregivers
Heard from their family and friends' stories that have been passed down through the generation, most Aboriginal children come to school with a strong sense of what has happened in the past (Harrison, 2011). Therefore, before planning learning for Indigenous children, it is essential to talk to them and learn about how they feel about the school.
invite them to less formal social functions at school like a barbecue or sports day
ensure that parents know exactly why they are coming and what they will do when they get there
wait to see what parents have to say and whether you understand their position
take a long way around to state your opinion or ask a question
avoid complaining about any bad behaviours of the children
think of some good things to say about their children
support them to have a voice in the school
According to Dodson (2007, as cited in Harrison 2011), 'intense community involvement' is one of the key elements of every successful model of Aboriginal education.
It is beneficial to bring in Aboriginal people to your classroom, especially for your students who have never met an Aboriginal people (Harrison, 2011).
Click me if you what to know more about the flying of the flag
: http://moodle.vle.monash.edu/pluginfile.php/3199892/mod_resource/content/1/australian_flags_excerpt.pdf
Parents are your best teachers. They can help you to deliver a quality program for Aboriginal students and also provide you with useful ideas on how to include Aboriginal perspectives for non-Aboriginal students (Harrison, 2011) .
My approach
As a teacher who will work in cross-cultural education, I need to recognise the different ways that Aboriginal students learn and be aware of that not make these differences become an huge gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal students.
My approach
#5. Cooperation
To collaborate with the school Principal to develop school and family engagement by developing a School Koorie Education Partnership
#4. Finding the community
Finding the Koorie Education Workforce/KESOs in your region to engage with families where required.
#3. Discuss with your colleagues
Starting point could be involving and valuing the Indigenous staff in school and listening to what they are suggesting (AITSL, 2014)
It is always a good way to discuss with your colleagues and learn what it work or does not work in their classrooms.
Have a regular meeting with your colleague to discuss about how to incorporate Aboriginal perspectives in everyday practice and share each other with Aboriginal cultural study resource

#2. Consult their parents
It is essential to involve parents/caregivers of Indigenous students in the planning procedure, especially the creating and implementation of KELP. As mentioned in the previous section, parents involvement is of significance to Indigenous student's learning and developing. It provides students sense of security in the school and helps improve their engagement in learning activities.
#1. Talk to you students
There is an issue when establish a Koorie Education Learning Plan for Aboriginal student: how to design a plan for them without making them feel being singled out.
Let students have their voice would be a good solution. Learn about their interests, their needs and their aspirations. It won't be a successful plan if without students' perspectives.
Harrison (2011) indicated that some parents may found difficult to have an interview at school because they might not have their own car. So home visit will be the best solution in this case.
It is important to let parents know the school cares about their children!
In the cultural-historical theory, Vygotsky introduced the concept of the zone of proximal develop to explain how children's learning could be supported (Lindon, 2010).
Educators and more knowledgeable others (like peers) can assist children to develop from the actual level that they can independently achieve to a higher level of development that they are not yet able to accomplish by themselves.
Email: qye10@student.monash.edu
Student ID: 25390031

Stated in the policy, the school should (State Government Victorian Department of Education and Training, 2015):
Work in partnership with the Koorie community to develop an understanding of Koorie culture and the interpersonal relationship with the Koorie community
Support the development of high expectations and individualised learning for Koorie students
Create an environment that respects, recognises and celebrates cultural identity through practice and curriculum
Implement initiatives and programs that meet student needs and in partnership with the Koorie community.
The Koorie Education Learning Plan (KELP) is an online tool which aims a providing opportunities for schools and families in cooperation to support Koorie young people's literacy and numeracy outcomes.
that will help schools to (DEECD, 2012).
Individual Education Plans for all Koorie students (IEP)
This forms part of a school’s accountability process and the number of Koorie students with an IEP is reported on annually through the August school census. The IEP encourages schools to pay attention to each Koorie student’s needs.
Each Koorie child’s IEP must be developed in partnership with the student, their parent/guardian and Koorie Engagement Support Officer (KESO).
Koorie Education Learning Plan (KELP)
The Koorie Education Learning Plan (KELP) – in summary is an online tool for:
Foundation to Year 10 in the Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) learning domains for English and Mathematics only
Foundation to Year 12 to develop a Student Aspirational Learning Plan (SALP).
The Koorie learner is at the centre supported by a family and school engagement (SKEP), the online learning plan (KELP) and student voice (SALP).
The School Koorie Education Partnership (SKEP) focuses on a formal whole of school partnership with Koorie families and community. This ongoing partnership focuses on school and parents’/caregivers’ engagement in developing strategies in learning, cultural engagement, awareness, attendance and well-being to support Koorie students.
The KELP focuses on the learning goals of each Koorie student’s English and Maths levels. The school, the teacher, the student and their family engage in developing an Individual Education Plan (IEP) that continually plans learning goals and reviews progress against the VELS levels.
A Student Aspiration Learning Plan (SALP) helps students to identify the learning goals needed to improve their educational outcomes and progression through the VELS in Foundation to Year 10 and senior secondary options of a senior secondary qualification (Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) and Victorian Certificate of Applied Learning (VCAL) or Vocational Education and Training (VET) certificate at AQF Level II or higher) SALP helps families and students see progress and plan for the future.
Establish online lesson plan (KELP)
Establish online lesson plan (KELP)
The first step in establishing the KELP is for the school to appoint a Learning Plan Manager and KELP team. This will enhance the schools capacity to implement the KELP, develop sustainability, and assist with forward planning and communication with the regional Koorie Education Workforce (KEW).
This is when teachers need to talk to the student to learn about his/her interests, values and needs, and also the time for teachers to assess student's current level of learning and development (ZPD).
This is not only an upbeat book to read at bedtime, it would also be of great value in the classroom to encourage children of all ages to research their own background and heritage (Heiss, 2011).
AITSL. (2014). Experiencing success. from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00217
Bailey, P. (1990). We are Learning - Slowly. Aboriginal Child at School, 18(1). Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/documentSummary;res=IELIND;dn=645186244400454
Berk, L. E. (1995). Scaffolding children's learning : Vygotsky and early childhood education. Washington: Washington : National Association for the Education of Young Children.
DEECD. (2011). Victorian Early Year Learning and Development Framework. Melbourne: Retrieved from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/childhood/providers/edcare/veyldframework.pdf.
DEECD. (2012). Koorie Education Learning Plan KELP Resource. Retrieved from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/about/programs/aboriginal/kelpresource.pdf.
Fleer, M. (2014). Cultural-Historical Theories of Child Development. In Maynard, T & Powell, S (Eds). An introduction to early childhood studies (3rd edition. ed.): London : SAGE.
Follari, L. M. (2011). Foundations and best practices in early childhood education : history, theories, and approaches to learning. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson.
Hammond, J, & Gibbons, P. (2005). Putting scaffolding to work : the contribution of scaffolding in articulating ESL education. Prospect, 20(1), 6-30. Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/fullText;dn=143258;res=AEIPT
Harrison, N. (2011). Teaching and learning in Aboriginal education (2nd ed. ed.). South Melbourne, Vic.: South Melbourne, Vic. : Oxford University Press.
Hedegaard, M. (2012). Analyzing Children's Learning and Development in Everyday Settings from a Cultural-Historical Wholeness Approach. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 19(2), 127-138. doi: 10.1080/10749039.2012.665560
Heiss, A. (2011). Review: Wandihnu and the Old Dugong. from http://anitaheissblog.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/review-wandihnu-and-old-dugong.html
Lindon, J. (2010). Understanding child development : linking theory and practice (2nd ed. ed.). London: London : Hodder Education.
Maynard, T, & Powell, S. (2014). An introduction to early childhood studies (3rd edition. ed.): London : SAGE.
McCormark, J. N, & Cowey, W. (2008). Accelerated literacy teaching and its links with indigenous learning. Ngoonjook(33), 61-72. Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=890297294646279;res=IELIND
Perso, T. (2010). Pedagogical Framework for Cultural Competence-Literacy and Numeracy Policy Guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.education.nt.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/15218/PedagogicalFrameworkCulturalCompetence.pdf.
Santoro, N. (2009). Teaching in culturally diverse contexts: what knowledge about 'self' and 'others' do teachers need? Journal of Education for Teaching, 35(1), 33-45. doi: 10.1080/02607470802587111
State Government Victoria Department of Education and Training. (2015). Koorie Education. from http://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/principals/spag/curriculum/Pages/koorie.aspx
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Cambridge : Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky. New York: New York : Plenum Press
Kluwer Academic.
Zizys, K. (2010). Koorie footprints to higher education: A case study. Ngoonjook(35), 26-30. Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=879955995597978;res=IELIND
Key concepts that I use in Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory
#1. Zone of proximal development
#2. Scaffolding
#3. Social situation of development
(not Vygotsky's idea but it is an important concept in social-cultural theory)
#1. Zone of proximal development (ZPD)
#2. Scaffolding
#3. Social situation of development
Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory
Vygotsky (1978, as cited in Zizys, 2010) observed that students first learn on the social plane in the company of more knowledgeable others and that this education process is embedded in Indigenous communities and family structures.
The effective strategy that I introduce in the following video clip is 'helping each other (group work)'. It allows students to learn with the assistance of their peers (more knowledgeable others), It also creates a relaxing classroom environment that does not rely on a hierarchical power structure or demand that everyone always be in the same place at the same time. The ‘help each other’ strategy based on Vygotsky's concept of Zone of Proximal Development strengthens learning by enabling more capable students who are quick learners to become tutors in tasks and allowing those who learn at a slower pace or from a lower level to seek help from their more knowledgeable others. By doing so, those quick learners could explore and consolidate their own learning by supporting others. Those who learn at a different pace could get timely help from peers. The ‘help each other’ strategy encourages students to develop deep knowledge and understanding of the processes they experiment with and this supports the development of higher order thinking (Zizys, 2010).
(Harrison,2011 & AITSL, 2014)
Ideas captured from several videos in the AITSL website of focus area 2.4. such as 'Experiencing success', 'Aboriginal perspectives' and 'Selecting Indigenous resources'.
The following clip demonstrates my effective strategies in teaching Aboriginal students in mainstream classroom (where most of the students are non-Aboriginal students).
This video demonstrate an effective strategy - "help each other (group work)" for teaching Aboriginal students. It is found that Aboriginal students work better in groups because they can learn from their peers as much as from the teacher (Harrison, 2011). This strategy is informed by Vygotsky's concept of ZPD. Aboriginal students found it difficult to finish the work individually. When learning with their peers, the students can gain assistance and help and thus develop towards a higher level of competence. It is also worthwhile to notice that, when Aboriginal studenta ask to do some work and they say 'yes', they may just want to make teacher feels they are okay.
May 2015
Years before, when I first learnt the word 'Aboriginal' and 'Indigenous', it meant the same as 'local' to me. Although it was just some language thing in the past, it led to the fact that I knew nothing about Aboriginal and their culture when I first came to Australia.
As a international student, everything was new to me: a new country, a new culture , and a new language. I did not even know Australia well. So when I first knew this unit, I felt a little be frightened. However, it is because of my different culture and language background that enables me to better understand what Aboriginal students will experience in the classroom and with their learning. As Harrison suggested that "You don't need to know everything about Aboriginal cultures to be a good teacher, but you do need to understand your own culture and how it influences your teaching" (Harrison, 2011)
When I began studying this unit, I became less frightened and more confidence. I am now knowing more about the Aboriginal history in Australia, what happened in the past two hundred years and how these influence the Aboriginal people today. It was also great to know the small details in teaching or learning Aboriginal content. For example, when choose to teach Australian history, do not start at 1788; when typing or writing be careful to use capital 'A' in the word 'Aboriginal' and "I" in "Indigenous'; also the knowledge of acknowledge, what, who and how to do the this...
Moreover, I now better understand why we need to learn Aboriginal Education in the university and start to think more about teaching Aboriginal students or non-Aboriginal students about Aboriginal content.
After the whole semester's study, I had developed my own culturally appropriate style of teaching Aboriginal content or Aboriginal students. What you choose matters! The biggest challenge I face is what to teach, how to find a cultural appropriate resource to teach my students, It is always useful to keep in mind that when you do the researches, go and find something local.
Furthermore, in order to know more about Indigenous people and their culture, I would attend some Indigenous related activities and go to visit some museums and gallery that shows their culture.
About the video
Most Aboriginal students have their own home language and culture background which require them to learn the language, relationships, values, rules and procedures of school before they can finally learn about the subject content (Perso, 2010). They may easily feel that education system has no relevance to them if the richness and complexity of their own language and culture have not been recognised by the school. Therefore, it is suggested that children’s general motivation can be improved if the school and educators notice their specific needs and interests and actively adjust both curriculum and pedagogy for them (Bailey, 1990).
Taking a sociocultural perspective allows me to recognise the cultural context as I plan and teach. Realising my own cultural beliefs, values, norms and behaviours, and understanding that of my students’ provide me with a better insight of what make better sense to them. Based on this knowledge of my students, planning and teaching can be more related to students’ everyday life which also helps making learning more meaningful for them.
Zone of proximal development(ZPD) describes a zone of children's development with one end stands for the tasks that are beyond children's current level of development while the other end demonstrates the tasks that children can accomplish independently (Vygotsky, 1978). The zone between these two ends, therefore, indicates the possibilities for teachers to provide suitable assistance in order to help their students to explore and learn towards a higher level of development .

This concept is particularly useful in Aboriginal Education, because it requires assessments in the beginning for teacher to understand students' current level of understanding or development. Teachers can learn about how good the students understand the teaching language (standard English) and what the students already know (subject knowledge). Meanwhile, by providing one-to-one assistance, teachers can best suit each student's learning style, interests and needs which can not only reduce the pressure on them but also better engage them to learn. Moreover, Vygotsky suggested that the social interaction between children and children also allows them to solve problems in collaboration with more capable peers but not only adults (Lindon, 2010).
Scaffolding refers to the assistance mentioned previously in the last concept ZPD. It is a supportive technique that can be used by educators to offer guidance for students to master a new skill or understand a new concepts (Hammond & Gibbons, 2005; Lindon, 2010). Scaffolding emphasises on providing specific help for students to achieve their learning potential but not simply on their current level of development. Harrison (2011) suggested that higher expectations for Aboriginal students may encourage them to achieve higher academic performances. The concept of scaffolding suggests teachers to actively adjust the amount of help or instructions they provide for students' development and keep students constantly develop within their ZPDs (Berk, 1995). The interaction in scaffolding can provide student with an appropriately supportive and yet challenging environment that consequently encourage them to reach their potentials.
Hedegaard (2012) pointed out that by focusing on children's social situation of development, researchers can learn about the influence of dialectic relationships between the children's orientation within the setting and the demands from the setting and other persons on children's activities within their ZPD. Vygotsky (1987) considered the social environment as the source for the appearance of all specific human properties of the personality which can be gradually acquired by the child or the source of social development of the child. In Aboriginal education, it is the educators role to design a rich social environment for student of not only the mainstream culture but also the unique Aboriginal culture from the students and their family.
Same as Vygotsky, Bronfenbrenner also believed that children's development are not isolated. He conceptualised how children's everyday life takes place in different context到and how these influence children's development and learning (Hedegaard, 2012). Bronfenbrenner suggested that the innermost circle which includes the daily experience with families, peers and friends within home, early years settings or school have the most direct influences on the children (Lindon, 2010). The next layer of social system, which he called it exosystem, have less impacts on the children. These indirect influences may come from their neighborhood or local social networks that includes their parents' friends or their parents' experiences of job. The outer layer, however includes a broader social structures such as education, economic systems, cultural values and policies. For example, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are protected and supported by various policies and documents such as the Declaration of Indigenous people, Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children's Cultural Needs. Although Brofenbrenner's ecological model of child development have not indicate what exact influences of different settings on the children, it tries to cover the parts of social system that indirectly affect the children's development .
Classroom could be a bridge between Indigenous and western education. It provides a place for transformational process; it enables teachers to offer warm and supportive social interactions which could later develop as educational interactions; it also gives Indigenous children opportunities to bring in their family perspectives, values and expectations and seek for acceptance and respects. "To deny or dismiss the importance of this knowledge would be to devalue, damage and possibly break a child's sprit" McCormark & Cowey, 2008, P64).
There has been plenty of books of Australian Indigenous people published over the past decades. Each of them have presented different aspects of Aboriginal culture. The above link is a list of some recommendations of Mandy Clarke and Kate Shepherd. Some books on the list are published recently and most of them are written by Indigenous Australians. By reading some books by Indigenous people, teachers gain some insights into Indigenous culture and thoughts that are not previously possible.
Baluk Arts: Kunda Beamo: http://www.visitfrankston.com/whats-on/events/event/250864-baluk-arts-kunda-beamo
Baluk Arts: Selected Works on Paper: http://www.visitfrankston.com/whats-on/events/event/250861-baluk-arts-selected-works-on-paper
First Peoples in Melbourne Museum: http://museumvictoria.com.au/bunjilaka/visiting/first-peoples/
Nitet Yapeneyepuk in Melbourne Museum: http://museumvictoria.com.au/bunjilaka/whatson/nitet-yapeneyepuk/
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