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Information Processing

KIN 330 - Berry College - Dept. of Kinesiology
by

David Elmer

on 30 November 2016

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Transcript of Information Processing

Information Processing
Chapter 3
humans:
accept info from environment
store it in memory
process the information

for:
perception
decision-making
action

ex: as you're approaching an intersection in your car, the light turns yellow...
input
output
processing
(yellow light)
(gas or brake, and how much?)
early research:
black box model
later research:
cognitive psychology
what comes in?
what comes out?
how long?
chronometric approach
vs.
reaction time (RT) method:
measure interval between presentation of stimulus and initiation of response
abstract way of studying cognitive function
requires careful study design to isolate a single process
ideally, alter one variable and measure a difference in RT
stimulus i.d.
response selection
response programming
Donders' subtractive method: 1868
simple RT
choice RT
go/no-go RT
# stimulus choices
# response choices
processing stages
reaction time
1
2
2
1
2
1
stimulus detection
response execution
stimulus detection
stimulus i.d.
response selection
response execution
stimulus detection
stimulus i.d.
response execution
200 ms
230 ms
285 ms
= go/no-go RT - simple RT = 230 - 200 =
stimulus i.d.
30 ms
response selection
= choice RT - go/no-go RT = 285 - 230 =
55 ms
stimulus detection
neurological impulses sent toward brain
contacts memory:
some aspect of the stimulus is identified and connected with something in the past
variables affecting detection:
clarity
intensity
modality
pattern recognition
patterns or features aid in identifying the stimulus
dd.dynamicdiagrams.com
may be genetic or heavily influenced by learning
S-R alternatives
increasing # of possible responses increases RT
choice RT
RT increases by ~150 ms every time # of S-R alternatives doubles
S-R alternatives are a measure of how much info must be processed
S-R compatibility
Merckel - 1885:
increase from 1 - 2 =
+ 130 ms
increase from 9 - 10 =
+ 3 ms
Hicks' law
choice RT = a + b[log (N)]
2
intercept
slope
# of S-R alternatives
interpretations
intercept and slope
exceptions
if "N" number of responses, then you need log (N) of information
2
bits
amount of info needed to reduce uncertainty by half
changing the probability of a stimulus also affects RT
H = log (1 / P )
2
i
- changes amount of info delivered
information delivered
probability of stimulus "i"
lower probability delivers more info, increases RT
more info to process = longer RT
intercept = simple RT
indicates the overall speed of the perceptual and motor system for an individual
slope
indicates speed of decision making in response selection stage
sport application
in team sports with a speed component, you can slow your opponents reaction time by forcing him/her to process more information
increase potential number of responses
execute a less-probable maneuver
http://wapc.mlb.com/play/?content_id=3209355&query=eephus
* both are different for each individual
1. practice
can totally eliminate increase in RT with enough practice
2. relationship between stimulus and response
more natural responses not affected by increased S-R alternatives
degree of natural-ness between stimulus and response
incompatibility increases RT and increases errors
spatial vs. anatomical
both play a role
best scenario is when both are compatible
regardless of anatomical arrangement, spatial compatibility speeds RT
S-R intensity
strong stimulus, strong response
Study:
even numbers 2 or 8 = precision grip
odd numbers 3 or 9 = power grip
find the x in as few questions as possible
Simon effects
spatial compatibility of irrelevant info is important for speed of RT
ex: subject wearing headphones
press right key when you hear the word "right," press left key when you hear the word "left"
word spoken into either left or right ear only
complex actions
when a complex action is initiated, RT is faster when efficiency of final position is considered
end-state comfort
e.g. picking up drinking glass that is upside down and turning it over
take info, select response, then retrieve program of action from memory
abstract idea
muscular contraction
memory drum theory
Henry-Rogers
more complex movements result in longer RTs
even when # of S-R alternatives is the same
- e.g. simple RT
A
B
C
1
2
4
no
yes
yes
very brief
95 ms
465 ms
159 ms
195 ms
208 ms
movement
# moving parts
accuracy
movement duration
reaction time:
moving parts
must be part of a whole, continuous response
likely must be a discrete task as well
examples:
latency in speaking first word of a sentence increased by 10 ms with each additional word added to it
latency in typing first letter increased by 5-15 ms for each additional letter of a word
if the delay between moving parts is too long, you only have to program one at a time
accuracy
as accuracy requirements increase or become more precise, RT increases
Fitts
greater detail on his research in a later chapter
duration
longer movement duration increases RT
especially evident with movement durations under 600 ms
Klapp & Erwin:
make 10 cm slide movement along track, with movement time goal of increasing duration
longer movement times = longer RTs
action and accuracy remained constant
more complicated movement takes a longer time to program
anticipation
signal detection
spatial
temporal
anticipate you will need to move
where
allows you to "pre-program" a component of the movement, then bypass it when the stimulus arrives
shorter reaction time
anticipate the stimulus will arrive
when
constant-duration
variable-duration
aging
foreperiods
foreperiod is the same every trial
you can respond nearly simultaneously
more effective if foreperiod is
short
with practice
if you know what to do beforehand
www.artsology.com
fastest RTs occur at:
most probable foreperiod duration
center of foreperiod range
or
(if all equally likely)
slowest RTs usually occur at shorter range of foreperiod durations
RTs get faster the longer the foreperiod lasts
if no catch-trials, the longer the foreperiod lasts, the more probable the stimulus becomes
higher probability = faster RT
cost vs. benefit of anticipation
guess correctly: RT shorter by -80 ms
guess incorrectly, but catch yourself (no movement): RT longer by 40 ms
guess incorrectly and initiate movement:
144 ms RT in wrong direction
additional 144 ms to stop movement and move other direction
now farther to move
longer time
less accuracy
taking in sensory information and deciding whether to perform an action or whether something changed in the environment
reducing errors
setting criteria
MEMORY
direct vs. indirect
short-term sensory store
capacity:
limitless
storage duration:
< 1 sec, then rapidly lost
coding:
very literal
short-term memory
capacity:
storage duration:
coding:
7 2 items (chunks)
+
-
1-60 sec
more abstract
long-term memory
capacity:
storage duration:
coding:
seemingly limitless
seemingly limitless
very abstract
reaction time
http://www.chessgames.com/perl/chessgame?gid=1008361
motor short term memory
strength of good guy-like characteristics
probability of missing a good guy
probability of killing a fellow bad guy
decision: "not a good guy"
decision: "it's a good guy"
probability of correctly identifying someone as "not a good guy"
probability of correctly identifying a good guy
distribution of bad guys
distribution of good guys
probability of correctly identifying someone as "not a good guy"
probability of correctly identifying a good guy
probability of missing a good guy
probability of killing a fellow bad guy
probability of correctly identifying someone as "not a good guy"
probability of killing a fellow bad guy
probability of missing a good guy
probability of correctly identifying a good guy
strength of good guy-like characteristics
e-prime...
e-prime
e-prime
powerpoint
Full transcript