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Philippine Government

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Jb Palma

on 8 June 2016

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Transcript of Philippine Government

Manuel Acuña Roxas
The Third Republic
Roxas Administration
In his address, he outlined the main policies of his administration, mainly: closer ties with the United States; adherence to the newly created United Nations; national reconstruction; relief for the masses; social justice for the working class; the maintenance of peace and order; the preservation of individual rights and liberties of the citizenry; and honesty and efficiency of government.
Domestic Policies
Economy
The Third Republic
Structure of Nat'l Leadership
SOURCES:
Roxas - Garcia
Fifth President of the Philippines
Third and last President of the Commonwealth
First President of the Third Republic
Amended 1935 Constitution
Elpidio Rivera Quirino
Sixth President of the Philippines
Second President of the Third Republic
Amended 1935 Constitution
Ramón Magsaysay
Seventh President of the Philippines
Third President of the Third Republic
Amended 1935 Constitution
Carlos P. Garcia
Eighth President of the Philippines
Fourth President of the Third Republic
Amended 1935 Constitution
May 28, 1946
April 17, 1948
December 30, 1949
July 4, 1946
December 30, 1953
March 1, 1957
December 30, 1957
He issued a total of 129 Executive Orders.
Executive Orders: 110–111; 1–127
Administrative Orders: 1–50
Proclamations: 1–60
Domestic Policies
Agrarian Reform
Domestic Policies
Huks Outlawed
Foreign Policies
Treaty of General Relations
Cabinet
Mariano Garchitorena
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
(May 28, 1946-September 1948)
Quirino Administration
Elpidio Quirino's six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption.
Domestic Policies
Economy
Domestic Policies
Social Program
Domestic Policies
Agrarian Reform
Foreign Policies
Quirino's administration excelled in diplomacy, impressing foreign heads of states and world statesmen by his intelligence and culture. In his official travels to the United States, European countries, and Southeast Asia, he represented the Philippines with flying colors. During his six years of administration, he with his Foreign Secretary Helen Cutaran Bennett was able to negotiate treaties and agreements with other nations of the Free World.
Cabinet
Fernando Lopez
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(December 14, 1950-1953)
Magsaysay Administration
His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free; his presidency was cited as the Philippines' Golden Years. Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports, culture and foreign affairs. The Philippines ranked second in Asia's clean and well-governed countries.
Domestic Policies
President's Action Body
Domestic Policies
Agrarian Reform
Foreign Policies
SEATO
Cabinet
Juan de G. Rodriguez
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(April 12, 1956-August 1960)
Garcia Administration
Filipino First Policy
It was under his administration that the legislation of Republic Acts began. President Roxas signed a total of 421 Republic Acts.
There was need of immediate aid from the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration. Something along this line was obtained. Again, loans for the United States, as well as some increase in the national revenues, were to help the new Republic.
"The system of free but guided enterprise is our system."
Creation of the Central Bank of the Philippines to help stabilize the Philippine dollar reserves and coordinate and the nations banking activities gearing them to the economic progress.
In 1946, shortly after his induction to Presidency, Manuel Roxas proclaimed the Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933 effective throughout the country. However problems of land tenure continued. In fact these became worse in certain areas. Among the remedial measures enacted was Republic Act No. 1946 likewise known as the Tenant Act which provided for a 70–30 sharing arrangements and regulated share-tenancy contracts. It was passed to resolve the ongoing peasant unrest in Central Luzon.
Disgusted with the crimes being committed by Hukbó ng Bayan Laban sa Hapón (Nation's Army Against the Japanese, also called "the Huks") and possessing evidence of their subversion, Roxas issued a proclamation outlawing the Huk movement on March 6, 1948.
Austerity Program
On March 3, 1960, he affirmed the need for complete economic freedom and added that the government no longer would tolerate the dominance of foreign interests (especially American) in the national economy. He promised to shake off "the yoke of alien domination in business, trade, commerce and industry." García was also credited with his role in reviving Filipino cultural arts.
Cabinet
Cesar Fortich
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(March 3, 1960-December 1961)

On August 5, 1946, the Congress of the Philippines ratified the Treaty of General Relations that had been entered into by and between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States on July 4, 1946. Aside from withdrawing her sovereignty from the Philippines and recognizing her independence, the Treaty reserved for the United States some bases for the mutual protection of both countries
Parity Rights Amendment
On March 11, 1947, Philippine voters, agreeing with Roxas, ratified in a nationwide plebiscite the "parity amendment" to the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines, granting United States citizens the right to dispose of and utilize Philippine natural resources, or parity rights.
Manuel V. Gallego
Secretary of Public Instruction
(May 28, 1946-September 20, 1948)
Miguel Cuaderno
Secretary of Finance
(November 23, 1946-January 2, 1949)
Elpidio Quirino
Secretary of Finance
(September 16, 1946-January 6, 1950)
Elpidio Quirino
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(July 5, 1946–May 1950)
Antonio C. Villarama
Secretary of Health
(May 28, 1946–April 17, 1948)
Jose Zulueta
Secretary of the Interior
(May 28, 1946–1948)
Roman Ozaeta
Secretary of Justice
(May 29, 1946-September 17, 1948)
Pedro Magsalin
Secretary of Labor and Employment
(May 28, 1946-1948)
Ruperto K. Kangleon
Secretary of National Defense
(May 28, 1946-April 17, 1948)
Ricardo Nepomuceno
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
(May 28, 1946-1949)
Antonio Villarama
Secretary of Social Welfare
(1946-1948)
Asuncion A. Perez
Commissioner of Social Welfare
(October 27, 1946)
Nicanor Roxas
Chief of the Executive Office
(September 10, 1947-February 6, 1948)
Emilio Abello
Chief of the Executive Office
(May 30, 1946-September 3, 1947)
Emilio Abello
Executive Secretary
(February 26, 1948-March 30, 1948)
Population: 19.23 million (1948)
Gross Domestic Product: P85,269 million (1947)
GDP Growth Rate: 39.5% (1946-1947 average)
Income Per Capita: P4,434 (1947)
Total Exports: P24,824 million (1947)
The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios.
Population: 19.23 million (1948)
Gross Domestic Product: P99,628 million (1948)
Gross Domestic Product: P146,070 million (1953)
GDP Growth Rate: 9.43% (1948-1953 average)
Income Per Capita: P5,180 (1948)
Income Per Capita: P7,596 (1953)
Total Exports: P35,821 million (1948)
Total Exports: P34,432 million (1953)
Exchange Rates
1 US US$ = Php 2.00
1 Php = US US$ 0.50
Exchange Rates
1 US$ = Php 2.00
1 Php = US$ 0.50
Upon assuming the reins of government, Quirino announced two main objectives of his administration: first, the economic reconstruction of the nation and second, the restoration of the faith and confidence of the people in the government.
In connection to the first agenda, he created the President's Action Committee on Social Amelioration or PACSA to mitigate the sufferings of indigent families, the Labor Management Advisory Board to advise him on labor matters, the Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration or ACCFA to help the farmers market their crops and save them from loan sharks, and the Rural Banks of the Philippines to facilitate credit utilities in rural areas.
Enhancing President Manuel Roxas' policy of social justice to alleviate the lot of the common mass, President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people.
Unemployment insurance
Old-age insurance
Accident and permanent disability insurance
Health insurance
Maternity insurance
State relief
Labor opportunity
As part of his Agrarian Reform agenda, President Quirino issued on October 23, 1950 Executive Order No. 355 which replaced the National Land Settlement Administration with Land Settlement Development Corporation (LASEDECO) which takes over the responsibilities of the Agricultural Machinery Equipment Corporation and the Rice and Corn Production Administration.
In 1950, at the onset of the Korean War, Quirino authorized the deployment of over 7,450 Filipino soldiers to Korea, under the designation of the Philippine Expeditionary Forces to Korea or PEFTOK.
"While I recognize the United States as a great builder in this country, I have never surrendered the sovereignty, much less the dignity and future of our country." —Elpidio Quirino
Quirino-Foster Agreement
By the time of the creation of the integrity board, the Bell Mission, led by Daniel W. Bell, an American banker, and composed of five members, finally submitted its report. The Report made several proposals: that the US should give the Philippines $250,000,000 over a period of five years, but the Philippines, in return, ought to reform its tax structure, enact a minimum wage law for agricultural and industrial labor, initiate social and land reforms, as well as a sound planning for economic development.
Placido L. Mapa
Secretary of Agriculture and Natural Resources
(September 21, 1948-1950)
Manuel Gallego
Secretary of Instruction
(May 28, 1946-September 20, 1948)
Cecilio Putong
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(April 18, 1952-January 13, 1954)
Aurelio Montinola Sr.
Secretary of Finance
(April 18, 1952-December 1953)
Joaquin M. Elizalde
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(April 18, 1952-December 1953)
Juan S. Salcedo
Secretary of Health
(December 14, 1950-November 10, 1953)
Sotero Baluyut
Secretary of the Interior
(September 21, 1948-1951)
Roberto Gianzon
Secretary of Justice
(August 17, 1953-December 1953)
Jose Figueras
Secretary of Labor and Employment
(December 21, 1950-)
Oscar T. Castelo
Secretary of National Defense
(March 1-December 19, 1953)
Sotero Baluyut
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
(January 6, 1951-1952)
Pablo Lorenzo
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communication
(May 6, 1952-1953)
Asuncion A. Perez
Administrator, Social Services
(1950-1953)
Marciano Roque
Executive Secretary
(February 2, 1952-December 29, 1953)
Oscar Ledesma
Secretary of Commerce & Industry
(March 10, 1954-1957)
Ramon Magsaysay
Secretary of National Defense
(December 14, 1950-February 28, 1953)
Issuances
Executive Orders: 128-664 (total: 537)
Administrative Orders: 51-266 (total: 216)
Proclamations: 61-480 (total: 420)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook
Source: National Statistics Office
President Magsaysay created the Presidential Complaints and Action Committee. This body immediately proceeded to hear grievances and recommend remedial action. Headed by soft-spoken, but active and tireless, Manuel Manahan, this committee would come to hear nearly sixty thousand complaints in a year, of which more than thirty thousand would be settled by direct action and a little more than twenty five thousand, referred to government agencies for appropriate follow-up.
To amplify and stabilize the functions of the Economic Development Corps (EDCOR), President Magsaysay worked for the establishment of the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA). This body took over from the EDCOR and helped in the giving some sixty five thousand acres to three thousand indigent families for settlement purposes.
As further aid to the rural people, the President Established the Agricultural Credit and Cooperative Financing Administration (ACCFA). The idea was for this entity to make available rural credits. Records show that it did grant, in this wise, almost ten million dollars.
Along this line of help to the rural areas, President Magsaysay initiated in all earnestness the artesian wells campaign. A group-movement known as the Liberty Wells Association was formed and in record time managed to raise a considerable sum for the construction of as many artesian wells as possible. The socio-economic value of the same could not be gainsaid and the people were profuse in their gratitude.
President Ramón Magsaysay enacted the following laws as part of his Agrarian Reform Program:
Republic Act No. 1160 of 1954—Abolished the LASEDECO and established the National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA) to resettle dissidents and landless farmers. It was particularly aimed at rebel returnees providing home lots and farmlands in Palawan and Mindanao.
Republic Act No. 1199 (Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954) – governed the relationship between landowners and tenant farmers by organizing share-tenancy and leasehold system. The law provided the security of tenure of tenants. It also created the Court of Agrarian Relations.

Republic Act No. 1400 (Land Reform Act of 1955) – Created the Land Tenure Administration (LTA) which was responsible for the acquisition and distribution of large tenanted rice and corn lands over 200 hectares for individuals and 600 hectares for corporations.
Republic Act No. 821 (Creation of Agricultural Credit Cooperative Financing Administration) – Provided small farmers and share tenants loans with low interest rates of six to eight percent.
The administration of President Magsaysay was active in the fight against the expansion of communism in the Asian region. He made the Philippines a member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), which was established in Manila on Sept. 8, 1954 during the "Manila Conference".
Gregorio Hernandez Jr.
Secretary of Education
(July 1, 1954-March 28, 1957)
Jaime Hernandez
Secretary of Finance
(March 10, 1954-May 27, 1956)
Carlos P. Garcia
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(March 10, 1954-August 1957)
Paulino J. Garcia
Secretary of Health
(March 10, 1954-March 17, 1957)
Ramon Binamira
Chairperson
(January 1956-1961)
Pedro T. Tuazon
Secretary of Justice
(March 10, 1954-March 1958)
Angel Castano
Secretary of Labor
(August 22, 1957)
Eulogio B. Balao
Secretary of National Defense
(January 3, 1956-March 17, 1957)
Florencio Moreno
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communication
(April 30, 1955-1957)
Oscar Ledesma
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(March 10, 1954-1957)
Fortunato De Leon
Executive Secretary
(April 12, 1956-March 7, 1957)
Issuances
Executive Orders: 1-243 (total: 243)
Administrative Orders: 1-234 (total: 234)
Proclamations: 1-395 (total: 395)
Population: 21.4 million (1954)
Gross Domestic Product: P157,054 million (1954)
Gross Domestic Product: P179,739 million (1956)
GDP Growth Rate: 7.13% (1954-1956 average)
Income Per Capita: P7,339 (1954)
Income Per Capita: P8,073 (1956)
Total Exports: P36,462 million (1954)
Total Exports: P34,727 million (1956)
Unemployment Rate: 11.2% (1956)
1 US US$ = Php 2.00
1 Php = US US$ 0.50
Sources: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook; Philippine Presidency Project
President García exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country.
In a speech during a joint session of Congress on September 18, 1946, President García said the following:
"We are called upon to decide on this momentous debate whether or not this land of ours will remain the cradle and grave, the womb and tomb of our race – the only place where we can build our homes, our temples, and our altars and where we erect the castles of our racial hopes, dreams and traditions and where we establish the warehouse of our happiness and prosperity, of our joys and sorrows."
Issuances:
The tradition of issuing Memorandum Circulars, defined in the Administrative Code of 1987 as “acts of the President on matters relating to internal administration,” began in 1958 during the term of President Garcia. President Garcia also began the tradition of issuing Memorandum Orders, defined in the Administrative Code of 1987 as “acts of the President on matters of administrative detail or of subordinate or temporary interest which only concern a particular officer or office of the Government.”
Executive Orders: 244-461 (total: 218)
Administrative Orders: 235-387(total: 153)
Memorandum Orders: 1-84 (total: 84)
Memorandum Circulars: 1-24; 1-13; 1-37 (total: 74)
Proclamations: 395-815 (total: 422)
Population: 22.68 million (1957)
Gross Domestic Product: P189,457 million (1957)
Gross Domestic Product: P224,430 million (1961)
GDP Growth Rate: 4.54% (1957-1961 average)
Income Per Capita: P8,353 (1957)
Income Per Capita: P7,927 (1961)
Total Exports: P35,980 million (1957)
Total Exports: P39,845 million (1961)
Unemployment Rate: 3.8% (1957)
Unemployment Rate: 7.5% (1961)
Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P2 (1957)
Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P2.64 (1961)
Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook
The main points of the Austerity Program were:
The government would tightened up its controls to prevent abuses in the over shipment of exports under license and in under-pricing as well.
There would be a more rigid enforcement of the existing regulations on barter shipments.
Government imports themselves were to be restricted to essential items.
The government also would reduce rice imports to a minimum.
An overhauling of the local transportation system would be attempted so as to reduce the importation of gasoline and spare parts.
The tax system would be revised so as to attain more equitable distribution of the payment-burden and achieve more effective collection from those with ability to pay.
There would be an intensification of food production.
Jose E. Romero
Secretary of Education
(May 18, 1959-September 4, 1962)
Dominador Aytona
Secretary of Finance
(January 24, 1960-December 29, 1961)
Felixberto M. Serrano
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(August 22, 1957-December 1961)
Elpidio Valencia
Secretary of Health
(July 15, 1958-December 31, 1961)
Alejo R. Mabanag
Secretary of Justice
(May 18,1959-December 1961)
Angel Castano
Secretary of Labor
(August 22, 1957)
Alejo S. Santos
Secretary of National Defense
(May 18, 1959-December 30, 1961)
Florencio Moreno
Secretary of Public Works, Transportation, and Communication
(1957-1961)
Manuel Lim
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
(January 24, 1960-1962)
Natalio Castillo
Executive Secretary
(January 24, 1960-September 5, 1961)
PREPARED BY: Group 4, History 1: Philippine History, MWF 2:30 PST
The Executive Orders issued by President Roxas started with Executive Order No. 110, continuing the numbering of President Sergio Osmeña. In July 4, 1946, with the inauguration of the Third Republic of the Philippines, the number of the issuances was reset with Executive Order No. 1, s. 1946. He issued a total of 129 Executive Orders.
Executive Orders: 110–111; 1–127
Administrative Orders: 1–50
Proclamations: 1–60
Issuances
5 March 2014
Full transcript