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Understand the 3 parts of the cell theory and how to APPLY t
Transcript of Understand the 3 parts of the cell theory and how to APPLY t
2.1 - Cell Theory
Understand the 3 parts of the cell theory and how to APPLY these parts to the theory
2.3 - Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Big difference = NUCLEUS
Prokaryotes have very few organelles, do not have mitochondria, mostly unicellular
Both have ribosomes, however
Be able to determine whether or not a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic based on its characteristics
2.4 - Cell Differentiation
Start with cell division to produce IDENTICAL cells - stem cells - basic
Then undergo differentiation to produce various different kinds of cells
Depends on what is activated in the DNA of these areas
2.5 - Transport
Homeostasis = constant or stable state
Remove waste, take in nutrients via the semi-permeable membrane
Uses energy to move against concentration gradient
May concentrate molecules in one area
Does not use energy!
Moves down concentration gradient
Variety of concentrations over a specific area
Spreading out of molecules down the concentration gradient
Ex. perfume moving throughout a room, food dye moving throughout a glass of liquid
Movement of WATER across a semi-permeable membrane
-Perhaps putting a cell in a glass of water
Will move in different directions based on the solution in which it is placed
Use transport proteins to help some substances move because of their size or structure
Ex. glucose (sugar)
When too large to pass through cell membrane, passes through vesicles
Endocytosis - taking in things
Exocytosis - removing things
2.6 - Cell Cycle
Vocabulary to Know!
1. Centromere - center of the sister chromatids
2. Chromatid - 1 of the replicated parts of a chromosome
3. Chromosome - where DNA is located; condensed form
4. Chromatin - relaxed form of DNA
5. Centriole - produces spindle fibers in animal cells
6. Spindle Fiber - connect centrioles and centromeres to play tug of war!
2.7 - Regulation
Checkpoints - "cops" of the cell cycle; may let cells continue or will stop and arrest them in G0 (JAIL)
Internal signals - come from inside the cell and say "replicate" or "die"
External signals - come from outside the cell and say "replicate" or "die"
Physical signals = Density dependent factors
2.2 - Organelles
Know the organelles and their FUNCTIONS!!
Be able to label these organelles on diagrams!
Unregulated cell division
Malignant tumors - spread and cause death
Benign tumors - abnormal mass of cells that remains stationary
2.8 - Biochemical Reactions
Understand endothermic and exothermic processes
How does temperature affect reactions?
pH? Catalyst concentration?
Kinetic energy's role in temperature?
What does a catalyst do?
What is activation energy?