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Understand the 3 parts of the cell theory and how to APPLY t

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on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of Understand the 3 parts of the cell theory and how to APPLY t

Review of Standard 2 - Honors Biology 1
2.1 - Cell Theory
Understand the 3 parts of the cell theory and how to APPLY these parts to the theory
2.3 - Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Big difference = NUCLEUS

Prokaryotes have very few organelles, do not have mitochondria, mostly unicellular

Both have ribosomes, however

Be able to determine whether or not a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic based on its characteristics
2.4 - Cell Differentiation
Start with cell division to produce IDENTICAL cells - stem cells - basic

Then undergo differentiation to produce various different kinds of cells
Depends on what is activated in the DNA of these areas
2.5 - Transport
Homeostasis = constant or stable state

Remove waste, take in nutrients via the semi-permeable membrane
Active Transport
Uses energy to move against concentration gradient
May concentrate molecules in one area
Passive Transport
Does not use energy!
Moves down concentration gradient
Variety of concentrations over a specific area
Diffusion
Spreading out of molecules down the concentration gradient

Ex. perfume moving throughout a room, food dye moving throughout a glass of liquid
Osmosis
Movement of WATER across a semi-permeable membrane
-Perhaps putting a cell in a glass of water

Will move in different directions based on the solution in which it is placed

Hypotonic solution
Hypertonic solution
Isotonic solution
Facilitated Transport
Use transport proteins to help some substances move because of their size or structure

Ex. glucose (sugar)
Vesicular Transport
When too large to pass through cell membrane, passes through vesicles

Endocytosis - taking in things

Exocytosis - removing things
2.6 - Cell Cycle
Vocabulary to Know!
1. Centromere - center of the sister chromatids
2. Chromatid - 1 of the replicated parts of a chromosome
3. Chromosome - where DNA is located; condensed form
4. Chromatin - relaxed form of DNA
5. Centriole - produces spindle fibers in animal cells
6. Spindle Fiber - connect centrioles and centromeres to play tug of war!
2.7 - Regulation
Checkpoints - "cops" of the cell cycle; may let cells continue or will stop and arrest them in G0 (JAIL)

Internal signals - come from inside the cell and say "replicate" or "die"

External signals - come from outside the cell and say "replicate" or "die"

Physical signals = Density dependent factors
2.2 - Organelles
Know the organelles and their FUNCTIONS!!

Be able to label these organelles on diagrams!
Cancer
Unregulated cell division

Malignant tumors - spread and cause death
Benign tumors - abnormal mass of cells that remains stationary
2.8 - Biochemical Reactions
Understand endothermic and exothermic processes

How does temperature affect reactions?
pH? Catalyst concentration?
Kinetic energy's role in temperature?
What does a catalyst do?
What is activation energy?
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