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Western Civ 3-English Constitutionalism
Transcript of Western Civ 3-English Constitutionalism
England and the Legacy of Henry VIII
The Glorious Revolution
Immediately upon the execution of the king, Parliament declares England a republic.
The king is dead, long live the… Commonwealth?
Parliament invites William of Orange to invade England from the Netherlands and overthrow James II.
William of Orange "Invades"
England becomes a constitutional monarchy.
William and Mary take the crown as William III and Mary II on Feb 13, 1969 and a constitutional monarchy begins.
England now embraces a new kind of state, with a strong Parliament, relatively larger popular representation in government, on the path to a new kind of democratic system.
This stands in contrast to Louis XIV's
How Did England Get to This?
Let's Go Back in Time to Explain....
England's move to a constitutional monarchy can be traced to the 16th century and to Henry VIII.
Henry had strengthened his rule, had made himself the head of church and state, had relied heavily on Parliament to do so, and had spent lots of money, just like Louis XIV will a century later.
But just like Louis, this is ultimately sows the seeds of the monarchy's own destruction. For England it will happen in 1688, in France it will happen in 1789.
By 1642, the English Parliament came to believe that it, not Charles, represented the interests of the nation and that royal control had to be stopped. That conviction leads to the English Civil War of 1642-1646.
The Death of the King
The king refuses to negotiate, he is tried and convicted on a charge of high treason.
He is executed on Jan 30, 1649.
THIS IS REVOLUTIONARY
Now the members of Parliament, landowners, and merchants who engineered this revolution want the craziness to stop, (with themselves at the top of the hierarchy, of course).
Religious toleration and free press are allowed.
But by killing the king, they open the doors for ordinary people to break the links of the Great Chain as well.
All sorts of new, dangerous ideas bubble up.
English elites decide to restore the Stuart monarchy with Charles I’s son:
Charles II (1660-1685)
James II (1685-1688)
A new state is now created, but the solution is very different from Louis XIV's.
The Monarchy and Parliament must now work together
It's tough to be a God
The Five Problems of Absolutism:
1. Being a God
2. Holding onto Control
3. Staying Wealthy
4. Maintaining Religious Conformity
5. Keeping a Big Army
(all without anyone else's help)
A King on Trial
The Parliament raises a New Model Army, defeats king Charles I, and puts him on trial.
New Model Army
The execution of Charles I
and his brother
William of Orange
The Causes, Consequences, and Significance of The Glorious Revolution of 1688.