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AP3

Pronunciation Course - Working on it now
by

Ginés Abanto

on 1 July 2017

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Transcript of AP3

FOCUS ON PRONUNCIATION C
The
BEAT
of English
CHANGING

STRESS

CHANGES
THE
MEANING
?
Jack will cycle to the restaurant tonight.
I did not say you broke my green pencil.
She isn't flying to Hawaii tomorrow.
http://www.wordstress.info/word-stress/sentence-stress/
PRACTICE
LIMERICKS
Einstein
, the frizzy-
haired
,
said
E equals
MC
squared
.
Thus all
mass

decreases
as
activity

ceases
?
Not
my mass
, my *ss
declared
!
—Michael R. Burch
Question intonation
Will
you
drive to the office tomorrow? (rather than
someone else
)
Will you
drive
to the office tomorrow? (rather than
take the bus
)
Will you drive
to
the office tomorrow? (as well as
from
the office)
Will you drive to
the office
tomorrow? (rather than to
the bank
)
Will you drive to the office
tomorrow
? (rather than
next week
)
Have you ever visited Los Angeles or San Fran
cisco
? (Simple yes-no)

Have you ever visited Los
Angeles
or San FRAN
CISCO
? (Contrast)
Do you advocate the overthrow of the US government
by force
or
by violence
? (yes-no)

Do you advocate the overthrow of the US government by
force
or by
VIO
LENCE
? (either-or)
Funny "Contrast" and rhetorical questions
Why doesn't
glue

stick
to the inside of the bottle?
Why is "
abbreviated
" such a
long

word
?
Why is it called
lipstick
if you can still
move
your lips
?
Why is it that
rain

drops
but
snow

falls
?
Why is the man who
invests

all
your
money
called a
broker
?
Why is the word
dictionary
in the
dictionary
?
Do
Lipton

Tea
employees take
coffee

breaks
?
What
hair

color
do they put on the driver's licenses of
bald

men
?
Why do they use
sterilized

needles
for death by
lethal

injection
?
I would like to buy a hamburger
66-86963
or
668-6963?

1 a) four-hour-long/ exams/
= The exams took four hours.
b) four/ hour-long exams/
= The four exams took one-hour each.

2 a) It was really hot outside./ The temperature was 40 degrees./
= It was very hot outside (40 degrees).
b) It was really hot./ Outside,/ the temperature was 40 degrees./
= It was very hot (inside and outside), and outside it was 40.

3 a) The teacher said,/ "That student is hard-working."/
= The student is hard-working.
b) "The teacher",/ said that student,/ "is hard-working."/
= The teacher is hard-working.
PRONOUNS
Reduction >
Fast
speech
WHAT'S THE DEAL WITH...?
SO, REMEMBER: We don't do it on purpose, it' just us talking really fast.
Or in a really informal context.
PHRASAL VERBS
WHEN TO USE THEM?
Most of the time or all the time?
back down vs. backdown
Don’t let him make you back down. The result would be a humiliating backdown.

back up vs. backup
Back up your data regularly; then you’ll have a backup when your hard disk crashes.
check up vs. checkup
I thought I’d check up on how she was doing. Go to the doctor for a checkup.

chill out vs. chill-out, chillout
Relax, man; chill out! This is my chill-out time. Chillout music.
https://public.wsu.edu/~brians/errors/phrasal.html
FALLING INTONATION
RISING INTONATION
FINAL INTONATION PATTERNS
MINIMAL CONVERSATION
- Coffee?
- Ok. When?
- Tomorrow
- What time?
- About 7?
- Alright
- Great!
- See ya!
Now, make your own!
Questions only
- Do you have a boyfriend?
- Why do you ask?
- Why do you get mad?
- Why don't you mind your own business?
- What kind of monster are you?
- What kind of freak are you?
- Do you want me to call the police?
- Why would they listen to you?
Make a conversation using only questions
LISTING INTONATION
Series of alternatives
and
questions
with OR
a.
You can have white wine, sherry, or vodka.
b.
That dress must be cerise, carmine, or scarlet.
c.
A home run, a triple, or even a double will do.
d.
I can't twist it, bend it, or break it.
e.
Any season is suitable: summer, fall, winter, or spring.
Read each sentence SEVERAL TIMES, until the intonation patterns seem ENTIRELY NATURAL.
f.
Shall we wait here, or outside? (options)
g.
Shall we wait here or outside? (doesn't matter where)
h.
Which do you like better, Toyotas or Fords?
i.
Does that store sell fish, or meat? (options)
j.
Does that Store sell fish or meat? (any)
QUESTION TAGS
Easy,
innit
?
PARENTHETICALS
So, I suppose,
most people think they speak properly when
, in fact,
not everybody is able to communicate effectively all the time. When one isn't
, let's say,
focused on what you are saying
, for example,
one might make silly mistakes
, so to speak
.
The insect
, a cockroach,
is crawling across the kitchen table.
The insect
, a large cockroach,
is crawling across the kitchen table.
The insect
, a large cockroach with hairy legs,
is crawling across the kitchen table.
The insect
, a large, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of oatmeal,
is crawling across the kitchen table.
an ostrich
Kevin found an ostrich while he was peeing. His friend threw a pen at it. They got scared and jumped back into the car. Then, they realized the ostrich was running neck and neck with the car.
What's Rhythm?
WHAT'S RHYTHM? (again)
We now have learned to
stress
and
de-stress

syllables
in a
word
.
We also have learned to
stress
and
de-stress

words
in a
sentence
.
The Rhythm of English
Syllable stress
Word stress
+
=
We have also studied
Connected speech

losing sounds (Elision)
adding or joining sounds between words (Linking)
changing sounds (Assimilation)
Now, we have to study
RHYTHM FOR COMPLEX SENTENCE PATTERNS
Remember
THOUGHT GROUPS
?
Adjectives
My cooking is
as

good

as
yours.
This one isn't
as

big

as
the old one.
Jenny's new flat is
as

nice

as
her old one.
Paris isn't
as

big

as
Tokyo

Adverbs
I can sing
as

well

as
you can.
It doesn't work
as

quickly

as
we'd hoped.
Michael didn't play
as

well
this week
as
he did last week.
Pedro is able to run
as

fast

as
Bruno.

Quantity
There are
as

many
people here who can speak Chinese
as
English.
This phone doesn't have
as

many
features
as
the other one.
My ticket didn't cost
as

much

as
yours.
The old one is bigger
than
this one.
Jenny's old flat is nicer
than
her new one.
Paris is more expensive
than
London.
We'd hoped it would work better
than
it does.
Michael played better last week
than
he did this week.
The other phone has more features
than
this one.
Why does your ticket cost more
than
mine?
Conjunction:
as
...
as
Conjunction:
than
If I
study
for my exams
,
I
will
surely
pass
.
If I
don't sleep
well, I
feel
miserable.
If you
listen
to what he has to say, I
might understand
better.
If I
could play
any instrument
,
I
would be
a famous musician.
If we
didn't have
to work
,
we
would play
video games all day long.
If you
had learned
English well
,
you
could have gone
to any other country.
If I
were
taller
,
she
might go out
with me.
If we
were dating
,
I
'd try
to make her happy.
Conjunction:
if
I run around the streets all day. Under the bed or by the door I sit at night, never alone. My tongue hangs out, waiting to be fed during the day. What am I?

I am constantly overlooked by everyone but everyone has me. What am I?

I widen my jaws when you poke two fingers in me. I especially like to devour papers. What am I?

I live above a star who never burns. I have 11 neighbors but they never turn. My initial are p, q, r, and sometimes s. What am I?

I have no voice but I can teach you all there is to know. I have spines and hinges but I am not a door. Once I’ve told you all, I cannot tell you more. What am I?

I never was but always will be. No one ever saw me but everyone knows I exist. I give people the motivation to better themselves everyday. What am I?
Tomorrow
RIDDLES
Shoe
Nose
Scissors
Seven
Book
That
as a demonstrative pronoun and conjunction
My girlfriend
can go to the party.
She
can go to the party.
My girlfriend
can't
go to the party.
BUT:

Yes,
she
can
go to the party.
Can
she go to the party?
We use the strong form of CAN for short answers, emphasis or y/n questions

Can you call back tomorrow? Yes, I can!
Similarly, for other
AUXILIARY VERBS
Jess

has

gone

alone
. She
will

surely
face trouble. None one
has

ever
told me a word of it. I
'd
(would) love to know if she
'd
(had) decided
that
before leaving. Where
are
the good friends when one needs
them
the most?
De-stress the words in
green
. Remember to stress content words and highlight if needed.
Joe

is

always

late
. He
has
been
late

since

forever
. So,
will
you talk
to

him
or do
something about
it?
WHAT IS
INTONATION
?
Intonation is the TUNE of what we say. It's THE COMBINATION OF MUSICAL TONES on which we pronounce the syllables.

Good speakers sometimes use as many as 25 DIFFERENT NOTES to give variety and meaning to what they say.
Good
morn-
ing.
- It's hot here, right? - Yes.
- Can I come in? - Yes!
- You are Liz's sister, yes?
- Do you think that's ok? - Yes. - Yes?!
- So, we went there and... - Yes...?
- I swear it wasn't me - Yes
Intonation patterns can change the meaning
Unmarked wh- questions typically have a falling pitch
A rising pitch on a wh- question could be asking to have information repeated, or,
a high-rising pitch with a stressed question word could be expressing surprise or disbelief.
WH- and YES/NO question intonation
The 2-3-1 Intonation Pattern
Notice: Highlighting Info!
A: Look, I got a tattoo!
Rising Intonation in WH- questions
B: What?
A: I said I got a tattoo!
B: Oh, what?
A: A retro gaming tattoo!
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