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Photosynthesis and Respiration

Nisha Aggarwal, Sue Kim, and Christie Nakajima
by

Christie N

on 26 November 2013

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Transcript of Photosynthesis and Respiration






Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells.

The
light dependent reactions
occur in the
thylakoid membrane
and the
light independent reactions
occur in the
stroma
of the chloroplasts.

The process of
cellular respiration
occurs mainly in the mitochondria of cells.

Glycolysis
,

the breakdown of glucose, occurs in the cytosol.

Krebs cycle
occurs within the mitochondrial matrix, and
oxidative phosphorylation
occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Photosynthesis can
only
occur in
plants cells
.

Specialized organelles,
chloroplasts
are required by the cell to carry out photosynthesis

However, animals cells do not have these chloroplasts to perform photosynthesis.
Respiration can occur in both plant and animal cells because both types of cells must break down organic molecules into usable energy to be utilized in biological activities.
Although respiration can take place in a plant cell, respiration usually occurs the most in an animal cell because animals need to take in organic molecules and obtain energy in order to sustain their homeostasis.

Animal cells are not capable of carrying out photosynthesis because they lack
chloroplasts
, specialized organelles found only in plant cells in which a pigment known as chlorophyll captures light energy from the Sun.

Plants and animals obtain energy from different sources.

Plants have the ability to convert
light energy
into organic molecules through photosynthesis.

Animals are not capable of converting light energy into organic molecules and they obtain their energy by consuming plants and other animals by breaking down the
organic molecules
for energy.

Photosynthesis equation: 6H2O + 6CO2 + Light Energy --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Respiration equation: C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

Photosynthesis requires water and carbon dioxide molecules as a reactant, while respiration releases water and carbon dioxide molecules as products. Photosynthesis’s end product is sugar molecule and oxygen; the respiration’s reactant is sugar molecule and oxygen. Photosynthesis requires energy, but respiration releases energy.

Photosynthesis and Respiration Formulas
Pigments in Chloroplasts
Chlorophyll A
-most abundant pigment, absorbs wavelengths of 430nm(blue) and 662nm(red), reflect green light which makes the plant appear green

Chlorophyll B
- similar structure to chlorophyll A and absorbs wavelengths 453nm and 642 nm, increases range of light that plant can absorb for energy

Carotene
- “accessory pigment” Carotenoids absorb light maximally between 460 nm and 550 nm and appear red, orange, or yellow to us.

Leaves change color in autumn because as the amount of sunlight begins to dwindle, the production of the pigment chlorophyll slows down. Since there is no longer an abundance of chlorophyll to mask the colors of other pigments in the leaves, the yellow and orange shades of accessory pigments like carotenoids are revealed.
Lets Dive a Little Deeper!
Chloroplasts
Mitochondria
When discussing photosynthesis you should first understand the parts of the plant that are involved!
Here is a cross section of a leaf. The Leaf is the main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants.
Epidermis cells: the dermal tissue of cells of non-woody plants, usually consisting of a single layer of tightly packed cells
Mesophyll cells:
a loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and leaf surface

Vascular tissue:
plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body
Chloroplast: an organelle found only in plants that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
Chlorophyll: a green pigment located within the chloroplasts of plants.
Thylakoid:
interconnected membranous sacs that segregates the stroma from thylakoid space.

Granum (Grana)
: stacks of thylakoids
Thylakoid membrane:
a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy
Thylakoid lumen:
thylakoid space; interior of the thylakoid where the proton pumps brings the ions to.
Stroma:
the fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involve in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Inside each Chloroplast there are Thylakoids:
Comparison between Light Reactions and the Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis:
Light Reaction:

Occurs on the thylakoid membrane
convert light energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH
Split H20 and release O2 to the atmosphere
Requires water (H20) and solar energy
End products: ATP, NADPH, Oxygen

Dark Reaction (Calvin):

Occurs in the stroma
Use ATP and NADPH to convert CO2 to the sugar G3P
Return ADP and NADP+ to the light reactions
Requires carbon dioxide (C02), ATP, NADPH
End products: NADP+, ADP, G3P (sugar)

What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is the main energy storage molecule of living organisms. It is synthesized during photosynthesis and cellular respiration through chemiosmosis, the process that utilizes the proton-motive force generated by the electron transport chain. Hydrogen ions are hyperconcentrated against their concentration gradient and when they flow back across the membrane, they provide the energy needed by ATP synthase to synthesize ATP. This is known as oxidative phosphorylation. ATP is also synthesized through substrate-level phosphorylation, which is when an inorganic phosphate is added to ADP.

In photosynthesis, ATP is used to drive the synthesis of the three-carbon sugar G3P. In cellular respiration, the organic molecules constructed from the three-carbon sugar from photosynthesis are broken down to release energy in the form of ATP, which can then provide energy for cellular processes.

How are Glycolysis and the Citric Acid Cycle used in Respiration?
In respiration, glycolysis is anaerobic process where a glucose molecule is splitted into pyruvate, serving as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.

Citric acid cycle is the aerobic, second major stage in cellular respiration involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide.

Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle are not used equally in anaerobic and respiration because glycolysis occurs in both respiration; however, since citric acid cycle is aerobic process, it does not take place in anaerobic respiration.

During anaerobic respiration, such as alcohol and lactic fermentation, oxygen is not used. Thus, there is an unequal use of the glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in anaerobic and aerobic respiration.

Welcome to the
Power of the Cell
Exhibit

Created By: Nisha Aggarwal, Sue Kim, and Christie Nakajima
What are 2 main types of anaerobic respiration?
The two main types of anaerobic respiration are
lactic acid fermentation
and
alcohol fermentation
. Both of the two types of fermentation involve the process of glycolysis and the regeneration of NAD+ molecules.

In alcohol fermentation pyruvate is converted by releasing CO2 and converting into the carbon molecule, acetaldehyde. After this has occurred, acetaldehyde is reduced by electron carrier NADH to ethanol.

The other type of fermentation is lactic acid fermentation, where pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH into lactic acid without the release of CO2.
Which of the 5 kingdoms contain organisms that carry out Photosynthesis and Respiration?

Kingdom Animalia - Cellular respiration

Kingdom Plantae Photosynthesis and cellular respiration

Kingdom Monera (bacteria) - Photosynthesis (cyanobacteria) and cellular respiration

Kingdom Protista - Photosynthesis (certain types) and cellular respiration

Kingdom Fungi - Cellular respiration
Thanks for Coming!
We hoped you learned a lot about photosynthesis and respiration and it's importance to living things!
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