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M2- Explain the function of the cardiovascular system.

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Luke Northmore

on 4 March 2014

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Transcript of M2- Explain the function of the cardiovascular system.

M2- Explain the function of the cardiovascular system.
Clotting is formed when the skin is damaged, the clot is formed by platlets in the blood. Many platlets join together to become a temporary scab to keep the blood in the vessel whilst the skin repairs itself, the scab then falls off.
Thermoregulation in
athletes:
Thermoregulation is important for athletes because their muscles will need to be warm to prevent any muscle teirs or pulls during exercise. They also need the muscles to cool down after exercise to stretch out and remove all the lactic acid from the muscles, therefore thermoregulation is vital function of the cardiovascular system for atheletes.
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction is the closing of the blood vessels in the main systems such as digestive system so the vessels are vasoconstricted; this is because the digestive system wouldn’t need as much blood as it is not working. When the digestive system is at rest, the pre-capillary sphincter closes allowing fewer vessels to be available for blood flow because the heart isn’t supplying the system with as much blood and oxygen. The movement of blood from the digestive system to the leg muscles is called vascular shunting; this allows the area of the body in need requiring oxygen and blood to receive that blood.

In terms of thermoregulation the blood vessel closes when the body temperature is lower than 37 degrees. It does this buy taking the blood that is close to the skin and keeps it close to the heart, supplying all the vital organs with blood and heat to ensure they can maintain their specific functions.
Vasodilation
Vasodilation is the opening up of a blood vessel to allow more blood to flow through the arterioles, venules and capillaries. The effect that this has on the cardiovascular system is when exercising, For example running, the leg muscles such as quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius’ capillaries are vasodilated to allow more blood flow carrying oxygen to the muscles, allowing the muscle cells to respire and continue working for a longer duration. When exercising the pre- capillary sphincter opens as the vessels vasodilated allowing the volume of blood to enter the muscles to be higher.

In terms of thermoregulation the blood vessels vasodilate opening the vessels which allows the blood to be closer to the skin allowing more heat to escape from the skin
Thermoregulation
Thermoregulation is the cardiovascular systems way of either heating the body up when the body temperature is lower than 37 degrees. This is through vasoconstriction.
Thermoregulation also cools the body temperature down during exercise. This is through vasodilation.

Delivery of oxygen and nutrients.
The delivery of oxygen and nutrients is completed by starlings law. This law ensures that the volume of blood entering the heart must be the SAME as the volume of blood leaving the heart. Oxygen is carried in the blood by haemoglobin. The oxygen is then diffused out of the red blood cell and it diffuses into the muscle cells allowing the muscles to contract and the cells to respire. When the oxygen sticks to the haemoglobin its turns to oxyhaemoglobin. The rate of diffusion is vital for specific athletes dependant on what sports they play. For example; Usain Bolt's diffusion rate is less than Mo Farrah. This is because Mo farrah's muscle need to respire more because they last longer whereas Usain Bolt's muscles work anaerobically and without the use of oxygen.
Removal of waste products.
The cardiovascular system has a function of removing waste products such as C02 from the body cells. This allows the cardiovascular system to supply more oxygen to the muscle cells through blood meaning the muscle will last for longer without becoming fatigue. The removal of c02 is from the carbon dioxide sticking to the haemoglobin molecules in the red blood cells turning it into carboxyhaemoglobin which gets carried around the circulatory system and eventually breathed out. In relation to sports, athletes such as Mo farrah will require a fast rate of removing the waste products because his muscles need to respire and get rid of the c02 to allow more oxygen to be supplied top the muscles. Whereas Usain bolt would not have a high rate of removal because his muscles work anaerabically therefore no oxygen is supplied and the build up of c02 is a lot higher. However when warming down usain bolt's cardiovascular system would have to work very hard to ensure the c02 is taken out the muscles to stop cramps or tight muscles.





When removing waste products there is a system that needs to be in place to cause the blood to return back to the heart, the blood returning to the heart is the blood carrying carboxyhaemglo. The mechanisms of venous return cause the blood to go back to the heart.

Mechanisms of Venous Return:
Skeletal muscle pump
: As the muscle pump contracts, it squeezes the veins and pushes the blood back up to the heart. Warming down gradually allows the skeletal pumps to remove all unwanted substances from the veins and flow new fresh blood in.
Gravity:
Any blood entering the superior Vena Cava (above the heart) the blood will use gravity to speed up the blood flow back to the heart. This means
Pocket valves:
Found the veins, not very rigid as other veins. Pocket valves will open up to allow blood flow into the next stage; they then close to prevent any blood flow from coming back down the veins. If the pocket valves don’t work then the veins will become a varicose vein.
Smooth muscle:
Found in the arteries and veins. As the blood pressure drops, it triggers the smooth muscle to contract. Gently contracts helping to push the blood up.
Respiratory muscle pump:
When the diaphragm contracts which squeezes the blood back to the heart via the pulmonary vein.

Clotting:
Oxygen transport
Oxygen is transported into the muscles in the body through the blood. The oxygen is carried by the blood by haemoglobin. The blood is then transported around the body and the ocygen diffuses off the haemglobin and through the capillaries and into the muscle cell.
Fighting infection
When fighintg infection the cardiovascular system contains white blood cells, these white blood cells are known as phagocytes. The two types of phagocytes. They are designed to engulf pathogens and destroy the pathogen before it begins to reproduce and harm the body.
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