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Transcript of Energy Balance
Energy required by an animal to stay alive with no activity
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR)
Balance of calories from intake vs output
Positive Energy Balance
Negative Energy Balance
Energy input > Energy output
Extra calories are stored or used but will always = weight gain
This is not necessarily a bad thing
Energy Input < Energy output
Calorie stores will be used to make up for calorie input this creating a net weight loss
This is not necessarily a good thing
Carbs, fats, and protein mainly. Though certain vitamins play a role too.
Thermic effect of food
Rate of energy expenditure at rest
Accounts for about 70% of bodies energy usage
Often BMR and RMR are used interchangeably
Only a few things have an impact on this
Lean Muscle Mass
Eating less will actually LOWER your BMR
Direct and Indirect Calorimetry
Measures amount of body heat released. Involves expensive chamber and is not commonly used.
Measures amount of O2 consumed. Most commonly used outside of calculations
Accounts for about 20% or energy use
Obviously increasing physical activity will require an increase in calories or your body will used stored calories
Caloric cost of digesting and processing different macro nutrients
% of calories burned through processing
Food that requires more energy to be digested than it provided
no scientific evidence
produces heat because the conversion of the chemical energy of ATP into kinetic energy causing some of the energy to show up as heat
Ice water is negative calorie. Has no calories but requires the body to expend a very small amount of energy to raise the liquid to body temperature
Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry
More accurate assessment of a healthy body but harder to measure.
A measure of relative weight based on an individual's mass and height.
What is wrong with this?
Once the gold standard. It is based on the determination of body density by measuring the weight of the body outside the water, the weight of the body under water after exhaling completely, and the density of the water. The resulting body density is then put into an equation to determine body fat percentage.
Based on the same principles as Hydrostatic weighing, but through a technique that uses air displacement rather than water immersion
Whole-Body Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)
By measuring the resistance to the flow of a very small current of electricity through different parts of your body (most commonly the arms, legs or both), body fat percentage is estimated.
involves pinching specific areas of skin (and fat) throughout the body and converting the results into an estimate to body fat percentage
Skinfold caliper most common
Two X-ray beams with different energy levels are aimed at the patient's bones. When soft tissue absorption is subtracted out, the BMD can be determined from the absorption of each beam by bone
Now considered gold standard
Using the numbers
Obese: men >24% women >35%
Nature vs Nurture
children with no obese parent = 10%
1 obese parent = 40%
2 obese parents = 80%
What role does genetics play?
Genes determine metabolic rate, fuel use, body type etc...
What role does the environment play?
Similarities in families could be learned behavior
Linked to childhood obesity
Pregnancy also a factor
Not linked to childhood
Tends to appear after 30
Poverty can also lead to an increased risk for obesity
Due to sedentary life style limiting calories is important
Reading food labels is important
Keeping a food log has been proven very effective
We tend to underestimate portion size
Physical activity is key for weight control
60 minutes physical activity per day to maintain, more if weight loss is goal
Duration and consistency are more important than intensity
Find something you like
1 lb of fat = 3500 calories
But you wont just lose 1 lb of fat with this deficit.
You'll probably end up losing .7 lb of fat and .3 lb of muscle...
Modify the Behavior
Break the Chain (eating while watching TV)
May need professional help
Inpatient Treatment/ Calorie Monitoring
How to increase metabolism
Negative calorie foods
How helpful is BMI
Best/easiest way to measure body fat
Nature vs nurture in regards to obesity
Behavior modification for weight loss