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Developmental Psychology - Yr 12
Transcript of Developmental Psychology - Yr 12
The sheet needs to be cut out and each member should have one section.
YOU ARE NOT ALLOWED TO READ OR COPY OUT INFORMATION RELATING TO THE OTHER SECTIONS.
You must teach it properly otherwise they will fail the test! What does it mean to be attached?
-You've formed a special bond/relationship with someone, and they with you! Relationships are important throughout
our lives but they hold particular
importance during infancy. So what is attachment exactly? 'A strong emotional tie that develops
over time between an infant and their
primary caregivers Evolutionary perspective AKA Bowlby's Theory
Proposed that attachment was important for survival Learning Theory Using the principle of conditioning, all behaviour is learned.
According to the learning theory the food giver becomes a source of pleasure and this is the basis of the attachment bond. Over the next few lessons we'll look at disruption, separation and privation Cultural variations in attachments Assumption Attachment in Everyday Life A mum faces a dilemma - they want to look after their wee bairn but also want independence and an income coming into the house - what would you advise they do? AS Developmental Psychology
Attachment Types of attachment Why do we become attached? Explanations of attachment Cultural variations in attachment Disruption Privation Attachment in everyday life It's reciprocal Attachments depend on INTERACTION between two people, rather than simply being together Maccoby (1980)
1. Seeking proximity, esp at times of stress
2. Distress on seperation
3. Pleasure when reunited
4. General orientation of behaviour In 1951, Bowlby said that "in skilled hands adoption can give a child nearly as good a chance of a happy home life as that of a child brought up in his own home" Bowlby also thought those internationally adopting face children who've probably been through malnutrition, neglect, seperation from mother etc. How do they fare after adoption? Juffer & van Ijzendoorn (2005): -carried out a meta analysis
-investigated the effects of international adoption on later behvioural and mental health -Found those who were internationally adopted suffer fewer behaviour problems and fewer mental problems than those who've been adopted from the home culture.
-International adoptees though have higher levels of adversity before adoption Why did we watch this? Konrad Lorenz studied animals and noticed different behaviours of newborn animals. Task: Write down the key features of Lorenz's study in no more than 50 words. Klaus & Kennell (1976) Does early skin to skin contact lead to closer bonds being formed between new mothers and their wee bairns? Operant conditioning: Skinner used rats in his study They explored the cage because they were hungry When the rat pressed the lever a pellet of food would appear They learned that to get a reward you just had to press the lever Positive reinforcement: behaviour is repeated to get the reward Negative reinforcement: behaviour that removes something unpleasant is also likely to be repeated Behaviours that result in unpleasantness are less likely to be repeated EVALUATION Reductionist It 'reduces' the complexities of human behaviour to very simple ideas The person who gives greatest pleasure (usually the feeder) is the one who bonds best Schaffer & Emerson would disagree Human beings have evolved in such a way that infants are born with an innate tendency to form an attachment that serves to increase heir chance of survival. Social Releasers Sensitive Period The concept of a critical period is a feature of biological characteristics, If attachment is innate (and so biological) then we'd expect a period for its development. He gave a time of 2.5 to 3 years. There should be no disruption in this
time otherwise they'd be problems. Monotropy What is monotropy?
A single attachment to one person who is most important to the baby. He acknowledged that other attachments were important but there is one that beats them all! Agree? Grab your bags, let's go for a walk! EVALUATION Bowlby's theory had a massive impact on the idea of 'mothering' The continuity hypothesis
According to Bowlby's theory the IWM gives the child the idea that they are loveable/not loveable, and that others are either trustworthy or not trustworthy Critical or sensitive period?
More recent research has meant that there has been a modification to the critical period.
Rutter et al's (1998) study showed abandoned/orphaned infants still formed attachments after the first year. Maybe it's a not a critical period but a sensitive one? Does monotropy really exist?
He's been criticised for suggesting that the first attachment figure is unique.
Schaffer & Emerson's study clearly showed multiple attachments.
Bowlby hardly focused on other family members - I know my dad is very important to me! Summary Attachment is adaptive and innate
Babies elicit caregiving through innate social releasers, adults will respond
Bonds are formed with adults who respond most sensitively
This must occur during a critical period of development
Infants form one special relationship - monotropy
This leads to the internal working model and the continuity hypothesis Hazen & Shaver's 1987 study can be said to be evidence in support of Bowlby's IWM and continuity hypothesis. The study is called the 'Love Quiz' Mary Ainsworth worked with Bowlby. she was interested in looking at different types of attachment between baby and mum. Homework: due next Tues Cut out the essay fragments and sort into support/undermine Bowlbys study. Use your signposts to introduce your fragment and then explain how and why it supports/undermines Bowlby. Ainsworth identified three broad types of attachment behaviour: Secure attachments Mothers are a safe base
Happy to explore when mum is in room
Showed distress when she left
Settled down soon after
Wary of stranger Did not orient towards mum
Showed some distress at departure
but didn't seek comfort on return
Kept distance and avoided closeness Insecure avoidant attachments 70% 15% Insecure ambivalent
attachments Very upset at situation
Not easily comforted on return
Appeared angry and rejected attempts to comfort
Alternated between seeking closeness and wanting distance 15% Reliability Validity Why was this study a good
way to classify
attachment? Narrow viewpoint Universal Different cultural settings culture bound Why do you think that a high % of Japanese infants were classified as 'resistant' compared to infants from most other countries? Look at the table on Pg 62 Why do you think such a high proportion of German infants were classified as 'avoidant' compared to babies from the other countries? Why do you need to be cautious when interpreting the figures presented in the table? What further information would you like to know? Are there negative effects of the disruption of the attachment bond, in particular separation from the primary caregiver? Bowlby's maternal deprivation hypothesis Created in 1953 before the attachment theory..
It's less complex than his attachment theory. He said that if an infant failed to develop a 'warm, intimate and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute)' then the child would have difficulty forming relationships with other people and be at risk of behavioural disorders. Three important issues to note here - what are they? 1. Focuses on the importance of a continuous relationship. Discontinuous relationships become less predictable and unstable. 2. This development must occur during a critical period. A child can become emotionally disturbed if there are repeated separations before the age of 2.5 years. 3. The main relationship didn't have to be with the mother, the term 'maternal' can also describe a mother substitute. There has to be one primary caregiver. Evaluation 1. The evidence tends to come from children in institutions.
2. Not all research found has suggested that deprivation leads to maladjustment.
3. Rutter (1981) identified problems with the hypothesis
a) Bowlby confused 'cause and effect' with 'association'
b) Bowlby did not distinguish between the different types of deprivation. Separation There are two types of effects: long term and short term. When a child separates from the parent, be that planned or not, then the child tends to go through three phases: Protest the child cries, screams, protests when the parent goes, they may struggle with others Despair they begin to calm down, still angry though, may appear uninterested Detachment if separation continues then the child may engage with others but warily We know that Bowlby thought that separation threatened the attachment relationship and led to emotional deprivation Research done by James and Joyce ROBERTSON (1971) showed that this need not be the case. They filmed various children under 3 yrs during short separations.
Some in a residential nursery (e.g. John) and others with Joyce in her own home.
Can you think of what the differences may have been? Over to you. Working in small groups, no more than four, you need to 'present' information regarding the long term effects of separation and any factors that affect the child's response. You should do this in the form of a short drama. No powerpoint allowed. Privation Rutter suggested that it might make more sense to look at privation (lack of attachments) rather than deprivation (loss of attachments) There are three main types of evidence regarding privation:
Longitudinal studies of children in institutional care
Case studies of children raised in extreme isolation
Studies of Reactive Attachment Disorder (a category of mental disorder attributed to a lack of early attachment) Case Studies By studying children who've been in isolation we can see two things:
Some children never recover from their early privation
Other children show remarkable recovery There are two cases in particular we focus on
1) Genie (Curtiss, 1977)
2) Czech twins (Kaluchova, 1976) Genie never achieved good social adjustment or language despite intervention and being placed with a foster family.
Why did Genie fail to recover while other children seemed to be more resilient? Maybe due to a length of time in isolation
Maybe due to the actual experiences in isolation
Maybe related to some unique characteristics of the individual
Maybe related to subsequent care Longitudinal studies When we use these studies it allows us to see the effects of institutionalisation
The main research in this area is that of Hodges & Tizard (1989)
They found that there were some differences between adopted and restored children; those who were adopted were much closer to their parents than those who returned home.
But that's not enough information! Your task: Be the first to complete the table. Your table must match the information sheet.
You have 10 mins to do this.
You will work in groups of 4 or 5.
One person will come to the front, read a paragraph, race back to your group, VERBALLY tell your group what you read, they will then write it down. The next person will read the next paragraph and do the same. Once every group member has had a turn the cycle will start again.
The game is finished when one group has completed the table as much as possible. I will be the judge- if you haven't got enough information down you'll have to go back! Romanian orphanages provided a natural opportunity for replicate studies in care.
Rutter studies these children and found that the later the children were adopted the slower the progress. This suggests that the longer children experience emotional deprivation the longer it will take for them to recover, but recovery is possible. Quinton et al (1985) found the opposite Studies of Reactive Attachment Disorder Symptoms include:
lack of ability to give and receive affection
cruelty to others (esp pets)
abnormalities in eye contact and speech patterns
lying and stealing
lack of long-term friends
extreme control problems Suggests that the cause of the disorder is a lack of primary attachments Is day care just as good as mum's care? Will day care affect little Bobby's social development? Over to you: Next week you will have debate. For that you need to be prepared. You will create a workbook for one another which will cover the topic of day care. The only method you can use are pictures and mindmaps - there will be no essays! Types of day care Quality of day care Effects of day care on social development - studies included Cambell, Lamb & Hwang (2000) study Research method issues
(key terms, possible quizzes) Any negative effects? Any positive effects? Influence on
childcare practices What is good quality day care? EPPE project So where do you stand on the student dimension line?