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Transcript of The Reformation
The Zwinglian Reformation
New Liturgy: Scripture readings, prayers and sermons
Got rid of music during literacy, pilgrimages, clerical celibacy, the pope's authority and monasticism.
-How? Printing Press
- Middle class view of Church + Accepting
- "What has brought us Germans to such a pass that we have to suffer this robbery and this destruction of our property by the pope? ... Do we still wonder why princes, cities, foundations, convents, and people grow poor? We should rather wonder that we have anything left to eat.
-Mid 16th c -> France, Scotland, England, Holland + Germany (aided by theories of John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli)
- Religious confict (rulers vs ppl)
Followers receive communion
Prelude to Reformation
Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany
What were Martin Luther’s main disagreements with the Roman Catholic church?
The Social impact of the protestant reformation
Because of the spread of Luther's ideas, certain social impacts were immediate:
many peasants, artisan's saw Luther's argument of biblical freedom- extending to material and theological meaning
this resulted in widespread uprisings (1524-1524), between peasants, miners and villages, due to landlord and local government tax increases (in the form of rent and rendered services)
contentions also occurred withing the academic, as universities, and subsequently (elementary school teachers), began to hire with religious orientation mind, subsequently affecting elementary education
female roles shifted as well along with changing roles placed on priests. Many, forced to re-examine their place in faith, protestantism offered an appealing route to permanent celibacy.
The Protestant Reformation
-Reformation, spiritual/religious revolution
- aimed to correct “problems” of Catholic Church
- sparked a century and a half of religious civil war.
- est. Protestant branches of Christianity
e.g. Lutheranism and Calvinism
Applause or throw money
The Spread of the Protestant Reformation
What the difference?
The Radical Reformation:
Who are the Anabaptists?
Credobaptism v.s Infant Baptism
Separation of the church and the state
Melochiorites + Millenarianism
Amish, Hutteries and Mennonites
John Calvin and Calvinism
Predestination and Theocracy
Performing good works, good work ethic
3 Tests of Salvation:
An open profession of faith
A 'decent' and Godly life
Participation in the sacraments(baptism+communion)
inherited weakened Nation
threat of invading Turks from the Ottoman empire
"Father, I sanctify
you, I sanctify
myself for you"
"All the prophets
witness to this one
that there is
no other name
under heaven (by
which we can
be save)." Acts 4:10.
"There is only one mediator. I am the way. Behold. This is
the lamb of God."
John of Saxony, protector of Luther
and the followers
France: citizens converted,
leaders remained catholic
monarchs adopted protestantism,
"Behold, before you
lie many Roman
Catholic, not heretical,
ways to salvation; you
can come easily
"As soon as the
the soul flies to
Shame and burdens are
overcome by alms
Germany with in the holy roman empire
The Sale of
St. Francis and God look
down in consternation
Intellectualism of Renaissance
Beginning questions of Spirituality
Encouragement of further discourse
Martin Luther's Beliefs / Questions:
- Faith Alone -> Heaven
- 95 Theses
- Sale of Indulgences, ex Sistine Chapel
- No one can buy their way to heaven, not even Pope
- Why doesn't the Pope go and end poverty?
- Why don't they build the Basilica of St. Peter with their own money, rather than the poor?
Catholics v.s. Lutherans
Nature of the Service
Nature of Salvation
Administration of the church
Most famous for "Utopia" (greek meaning nowhere):
Book I =debate over morality in public service
Book II="In which there is no private property but strict equality of possessions, and as a result, harmony, tolerance and little to no violence."(Noble, 351)
"Prince of Humanists"
wrote "Adages", "The Colloquies", "The Praise of Folly"
most notable scholarly work was his Commentary on New Testament
By: Gail Shapira, Alice Gao, and Alexis Young
Activity- Guess the Author