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Transcript of Roald Amundsen
By Annabel Jairaj
Roald Engebreth Gravning Amundsen was born on 16th July 1872 in Borge, near Oslo, Norway. He sadly died at the age of 55 in a rescue mission on 18th June 1928. He grew up in Norway with his three brothers. His father, who was involved with the shipping industries, died when Amundsen was just 14. Amundsen at an early age was fascinated by the Polar Expeditions, he used to sleep with his window open during the winters to prepare himself for his future career. Amundsen wanted to become a famous explorer, however his mother wanted him to become a doctor. Amundsen for filled her wishes until she died, Amundsen was 21, then he left school to pursue his dream of becoming an explorer.
Amundsen is one of the most well known polar explorers ever born. His adventures started at the age of fifteen. He was still a student and was studying medicine, he would drop out sometimes to travel over seas.
Amundsen was the first to reach the south pole. He was a very experienced explorer, he has done a number of expeditions of which many have been success.
The Belgica Expedition
Amundsen's first adventure, was his first experience in the Antarctic. This took place on the16th August 1897, this trip was also known as the Belgica Expedition. Amundsen was accompanied on the voyage with many people, one being Adrien de Gerache. During the voyage many deaths occurred, due to lack of food or warmth.
On the 2nd March 1898 the crew realised, Amundsen's ship (
), was trapped in the ice and could no longer move on fuel.The voyage from here was a very slow process, they now could only move with the ice drift. In addition to this some of the ships food cargo's fell over board during a storm leaving the remaining crew in desperate situations. They ate seal, penguin and whale,if they were lucky.
Until15th February 1899 at 2 O' clock in the morning when the ice that had surrounded them for 11 months & 13 days had melted. They were no longer trapped. All who survived until then returned home safely.
The Belgica Expedition had completed two objectives 1) The very first scientific research program to be carried out in this part of the globe. 2) It is the first expedition that spent the polar night caught among the ice blocks.
Soon after the Belgica Expedition, Amundsen was the first to sail through the Northern Passage. As soon as the North Pole had been discovered in September 1909 (which Amundsen had been on his way to claim), Amundsen was determined to be the first to reach the South Pole. Amundsen was regarded for his skills in organization and planning. He decided to keep his plans a secret so no body would reach the South Pole before him. This was not just for the glory or fame but to also help him to repay some of his heavy debt's, because Amundsen knew this would raise a lot of money. But Amundsen was not the only one who had plans to be the first to reach the South Pole. Adam Scott also had plans of being the first to reach the South Pole.
All of a sudden it seemed to be a race between Scott and Amundsen, who would reach the South Pole first?
The Race to the South Pole
Amundsen set out on
, his ship with his crew. Amundsen planned to head north round South America to the Arctic, but all the time intending to head south to Antarctica. Fram reached the Ross Ice-Shelf on 14th January 1911, Amundsen having chosen to land at the Bay of Whales. Meanwhile Scott returned to land at McMurdo Sound, which gave the Norwegians a 60 mile advantage.
On the18th October 1911, after the Antarctic winter, Amundsen's team set out towards the Pole. Scott and his team set out three weeks later.
On 14th December 1911, Amundsen planted the flag of Norway at the South Pole. Amundsen reached the South Pole 33 days before Scott. After this Amundsen and his crew returned to their base camp. Further more Scott died in his tent on his journey home. Amundsen's crew all returned home safely, they were all famous and well known for discovering the Antarctic.
Amundsen died in a rescue mission, in an attempt to try save Umberto Nobile's crew members who had been in a plane crash.
The plane crash had taken place in the Arctic. Amundsen and five others left on a rescue mission in the French aircraft "The Latham" to try and locate missing members of Nobile's crew. Amundsen died, no record on his five other members. However ironically Nobile's crew were rescued soon after.
His death is also remembered in another way. He was on his way to the Arctic to help with the rescue mission when his plane crashed. They lost track of Amundsen and the plane. However no bodies were found or wreckage.
Facts about Amundsen
Amundsen, Nobile, and Lincoln Ellsworth all dropped their country's flags onto the North Pole as they flew over.
At one point he was attacked and nearly killed by a polar bear.
The airship he used to fly to the North Pole in was almost 350 feet long and filled with hydrogen gas.
He named the mountain range he crossed on his way to the South Pole the Queen Maud Mountains, after the queen of Norway.
Roald Dahl, who wrote Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and James and the Giant Peach, was named after Amudsen.
Several bays, glaciers and coastal features in Antarctica are named after Amundsen. The Amundsen Trail in New York was named after him
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