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Learning Goal 10 and 2 - Describing Celestial Bodies

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Brynna Hone

on 30 April 2013

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Transcript of Learning Goal 10 and 2 - Describing Celestial Bodies

Learning Goal 10 - Describing Celestial Bodies Luminous Non-Luminous A celestial body that radiates, gives off, or emits light A celestial body that does not give off its own light, it reflects the light from the stars/sun By: Brynna Hone Stars The Sun Something that most people are unaware of is the fact that the sun is actually a star. Stars like this are in the major part of their life. Estimated to be at least 4.5 billion years old, the sun is the reason for life on earth. We wouldn't be here without the heat (its surface is approximately 5504 degrees Celsius) and light it gives off. It is at the center of our solar system, the sun effects planets and stars beyond the distant plant (and dwarf planet) Neptune and Pluto. There are many other stars like this throughout the universe. Inner Planets Outer Planets Earth Mercury Mars Venus Asterisms Asterisms are groupings of stars in the sky that often make a "picture" or "shape". Most people tend to confuse asterisms for constellations. Our Solar System Planets A star is a cloud of gas and dust that produces energy by nuclear fusion reactions in its interior. A galaxy is a huge collection of gas and dust, combined with billions and billions of stars and planets, which are all attracted towards each other by gravitational pull. The stars and planets in a galaxy are constantly in motion. Our solar system is part of the Milky Way. It is called the Milky Way because it looks like milk poured across the night sky. This is a photo of our galaxy (the milky way) which is a spiral galaxy This is a picture of asterisms Galaxy A constellation is an area of the sky. Constellations are not actually the formation of stars, but the sky around asterisms. Our sky is divided up into different regions, each region is a constellation. For Example Ursa Major is an area in the sky. Constellations This is a picture of the sky divided into constellations Star Clusters Black Hole Supernova Earth Star Clusters are groups of stars that are fairly close together that can have as few as ten stars, and as many as ten million stars, which are still far too small to be a galaxy. An example of a star cluster is Pleiades, which can be found in the constellation, Taurus. There are also different types of clusters such as; open clusters which are not gravitationally bound and consist of young stars. Then there is globular clusters which are gravitationally bound and consist of old stars. This is a photo of Pleiades, an example of a star cluster A Super Nova is a huge explosion that occurs at the end of a stars life. After a star has used all its fuel in its core to produce energy, the star collapses inward becoming a Neutron or Black Hole. While this happens, shock waves push the outer layers of the star out, creating a huge explosion of gas and dust. Supernovas can be brighter than entire galaxies and give off more energy than our sun ever will. This is a picture of our sun The inner planets are the four planets in our Solar System that are closest to the sun. They have a density of about 5g/cm^3 and because this is roughly the density of rocks, the inner planets are also called the terrestrial planets (Terra being Latin for earth). Also, these planets have few to no moons orbiting them. Mars - It is the fourth planet from the sun
- Second smallest planet
- It takes 687 earth days to orbit sun
- Known as the red planet because of its rusty iron-rich soil
- Has two known moons; Phobos and Deimos This is an image of a Supernova Mercury - Closest planet to the sun
- Smallest planet in our solar system
- It takes 88 earth days to orbit sun
- Only visible just before sunrise or after sun set
- Has no known moons Venus - Second closest planet to the sun
- Earth's sister planet, almost same size and mass, just a bit smaller
- It takes 225 earth days to orbit the sun
- Easiest planet to see from earth because of thick atmosphere
- Hottest planet in solar system because of its toxic atmosphere
- No known moons The outer planets are also known as the gas giants. They are mostly composed of gases such as hydrogen and helium which have very low densities. It is believed though, that the center of these planets are composed of metals and rock. Also, each of the outer planets have rings around them. Lastly, unlike the inner planets, the outer planets have dozens of moons. Black holes are small compact objects that result in the death of a star that is three times the size of our sun. Black holes are so small and dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull. There are said to be billions of black holes in the universe, one which is in the center of our galaxy. But don't cancel your weekend plans, it will take billions of years to pull in the whole galaxy. This is a photo of a black hole Uranus Saturn Neptune - Third planet from the sun
- Earth is just a bit larger than Venus (fourth largest planet)
- It takes 365 days to orbit the sun
- Is the only planet known to have life on it
- Has only one moon Uranus - Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun
- Fifth largest planet
- It takes 30,987 earth days to orbit the sun (about 84 earth years)
- Uranus is blue because it has more methane in its atmosphere than Saturn or Jupiter
- Its equator is at a right angle to its orbit (it spins on its side)
- Has twenty-seven known moons Jupiter Saturn - Sixth planet from the sun
- Second largest planet
- It takes 10,756 earth days to orbit the sun (about 29 and a half earth years)
- Has the largest and mast distinct rings
- Least dense of all the gas giants
- Has fifty-three known moons Neptune - Eighth and furthest planet from the sun
- Sixth largest planet
- It takes 60,190 earth days to orbit the sun (almost 165 earth years)
- Cannot be seen with the naked eye, only with a telescope
- Like Uranus Neptune has extreme amounts of methane in its atmosphere
- Has thirteen known moons Jupiter - Fifth planet from the sun
- Largest planet in our solar system
- It takes 4,333 earth days to orbit sun (almost 12 earth years)
- Has a Great Red Dot this is a giant storm that has been raging for hundreds of years, the Great Red Dot alone is larger than earth
- Its size makes it easy to spot from earth
- Has sixty-three known moons Smaller Celestial Bodies Dwarf Planets Meteorites & Meteoroids A meteorite is a large meteoroid that has landed on the earths surface before vaporizing. A meteoroid is a meteor that was floating through space and then pulled into the Earth's atmosphere. Dwarf Planets are small, asteroid like planets that: orbit the sun; are larger than a moon; have just enough mass to be a circular object; and orbit zones that cross paths with similar objects. Some examples of Dwarf Planets are Pluto, Ceres, and Eris. Meteor A meteor is a meteoroid that has been pulled into earth's atmosphere. As the meteoroid falls, it creates friction, causing the meteoroid to become hot. Making the air around it to glow, producing the streak of light we see across the sky. This is called a meteor. As you can see in this picture the two dwarf planets; Eris and Pluto do not orbit the same as the other planets, crossing paths with some of the other planets. This is a photo of a meteorite on earth's surface This is a photo of a meteoroid in space This is a photo of a meteor in the earth's atmosphere Comets Asteroids Asteroids are chucks of rock that are essentially too small to be a planet. Asteroids can vary from a few feet in diameter to several miles. They orbit the around the sun and can be found mainly between Mars and Jupiter in the Asteroid belt. Comets are chunks of ice and dust that orbit the sun. When comets heat up from traveling close to the sun they leave a trail of dust and ice behind them. The sun lights up this trail making it glow in the night sky (this is why comets are non-luminous). A planet is celestial body that orbits the sun, it must have enough mass so that its own gravity pulls in into a nearly round shape, and lastly it must clear away any other smaller bodies in its atmosphere. This is a photo of a comet This is a photo of an asteroid I chose to put Black Hole under "luminous" because Black Holes do not reflect light like "non-luminous" objects do. Also, when Black Holes devour stars or other celestial bodies they give off an intense flare of light and energy. The video below demonstrates this. Nebulae White Dwarf Star Red Giant Nebulae are the beginning of stars. They are huge clouds of gas and dust, mostly composed of helium and hydrogen. There are different types of Nebulae which are; Emission Nebulae, Reflection Nebulae, Dark Nebulae, and Planetary Nebulae. A White Dwarf star occurs near the end of a stars life when the outer layers of gas drift away and the remaining core condenses becoming a small, hot white dwarf star. A Red Giant is another stage of the star. It occurs just before the White Dwarf star forms. A Red Giant star is formed when a star uses up all its hydrogen and other fuels and it swells up into a Red Giant. The Life of Stars Groups of Stars A cloud of high temperature cloud of gas that is energized by ultraviolet light from a nearby star. A cloud of dust reflecting light from nearby stars A cloud of dust blocking light from whatever is behind it Shells of gas that are thrown out by some stars near the end of their life.
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