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Nelson Mandela

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Mpoio Gc

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Nelson Mandela

3. Stay in Prisons
Nelson Mandela
IB3A1416L-V | María del Pilar Chehin Salinas
Stay in Prisons
Presidential Term
6. Conclusions
What are we going to talk about
Nelson Mandela?
4. Presidential Term
1. His life
5. Activism: HIV/AIDS
6. Conclusions
Mandela carries a message that seems to transcend borders. For many, it is above all a symbol of the human ability to see beyond their own suffering. A man after 27 years in prison, chose to reach out to the white minority that had imprisoned him and he guided his country to a historic transition.
His life
2. Apartheid
José García Cruz | 2013300380
Diego Alejandro García Fuentes | 2013100836
Rubén Ignacio Linares | 2013300824
Prison and Military Life
On 5 August 1962, police captured Mandela along with Cecil Williams near Howick
Rejection of his Freedom
Mandela spurned the offer, releasing a statement through his daughter Zindzi stating "What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [ANC] remains banned? Only free men can negotiate. A prisoner cannot enter into contracts
In 2000, the Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament was founded, hosted by Gary Player.[267] Mandela was successfully treated for prostate cancer in July 2001
Retiring from Retirement
In February 2011, he was briefly hospitalised with a respiratory infection, attracting international attention, before being re-hospitalised for a lung infection and gallstone removal in December 2012.
Born on July 18, 1918 in Mvezo, Cape Province, South Africa
Political Life
Beginning law studies at the University of Witwatersrand, Mandela was the only native African student, and though facing racism, he befriended a number of liberal and communist European, Jewish, and Indian students, among them Joe Slovo, Harry Schwarz and Ruth First.
What was it?
Was a system of racial segregation enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP) governments, who were the ruling party from 1948 to 1994.
The system of apartheid sparked significant internal resistance.
United Nations
"We stand here today to salute the United Nations Organisation and its Member States, both singly and collectively, for joining forces with the masses of our people in a common struggle that has brought about our emancipation and pushed back the frontiers of racism."

Western influence
In the 1960s South Africa had economic growth second only to that of Japan. Trade with Western countries grew, and investment from the United States, France and Britain poured in.
Reforms and contact with the ANC under Botha
In January 1985, Botha addressed the government's House of Assembly and stated that the government was willing to release Mandela on condition that Mandela pledge opposition to acts of violence to further political objectives.
1994 Election
The election was held on 27 April 1994 and went off peacefully throughout the country as 20,000,000 South Africans cast their votes.

Mandela rejected racism.
Mandela never renounced his objectives
Nelson Mandela always fight to benefit the people, for justice.
Mandela resigned his post with the ANC
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)
He established in 1995 the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC), which investigated human rights violations under apartheid, and he introduced housing, education, and economic development initiatives designed to improve the living standards of the country’s black population.
First black president of South Africa (1994–99)
In April 1994 the Mandela-led ANC won South Africa’s first elections by universal suffrage, and on May 10 Mandela was sworn in as president of the country’s first multiethnic government.
Mandela retired from active politics
Mandela did not seek a second term as South African president and was succeeded by Mbeki in 1999. After leaving office Mandela retired from active politics but maintained a strong international presence as an advocate of peace, reconciliation, and social justice, often through the work of the Nelson Mandela Foundation, established in 1999.
Arrest and Rivonia trial: 1962–1964
In 5 August 1962, police captured Nelson Mandela along with Cecil Williams near Howick. He was 27 years in prison.
Jailed in Johannesburg's Marshall Square prison, he was charged with inciting workers' strikes and leaving the country without permission.
What did?
Mandela studied by correspondence through the external program at the University of London, obtaining the degree of Bachelor of Laws.

Attempted murder
In February 1985, President Botha offered Mandela conditional release in return for renouncing armed struggle
The local and international pressure on the South African government to let Mandela released, were notorious, and in 1989. When President Botha suffered a stroke and he was replaced by Frederik Willem de Klerk. De Klerk announced Mandela's release in February 1990.
After his retirement, Mandela admitted that he may have failed his country by not paying more attention to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Mandela has since spoken out on several occasions against the AIDS epidemic
His son, Makgatho Mandela, lost his life to this brutal disease
Growing up in South Africa, I revered Madiba as someone who sacrificed decades of his own freedom in the fight against apartheid. Unfortunately for my home country, as one hideous affliction rightly faded into the history books, another emerged: HIV and AIDS.

The disease is indeed a war that has killed more than all previous wars, as Madiba has put it. South Africa has felt this keenly; it is home to more people suffering from HIV and AIDS than any other country in the world. And Madiba has felt it not only as the father of a nation, but also simply as a father, period. His son, Makgatho Mandela, lost his life to this brutal disease.
HIV/AIDS project
Mandela has financed various HIV/AIDS projects through the Nelson Mandela Foundation and Nelson Mandela Children's Fund — ranging from scientific surveys to programmes for AIDS orphans. “Let us give publicity to HIV/AIDS and not hide it, because the only way of making it appear to be a normal illness, just like TB [tuberculosis], like cancer, is always to come out and say somebody has died because of HIV,” Mandela said shortly after his son's death in an article published on CBS News Worldwide.

The Nelson Mandela Foundation
The Nelson Mandela Foundation, now the Nelson Mandela Centre for Memory, has educated and brought people together to combat HIV and AIDS, just as Madiba united a country to topple apartheid. The foundation’s 46664 campaign (named for his prison-issued number on Robben Island) launched a series of high-profile concerts to capture the attention of youth and inspire a new generation dedicated to social justice and ending the AIDS epidemic.
He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative, multiracial election
On 11 July 1963, police raided Liliesleaf Farm, arresting those they found there and uncovering paperwork documenting MK's activities, some of which mentioned Mandela
Mandela and his co-accused were transferred from Pretoria to the prison on Robben Island, remaining there for the next 18 years.
In April 1982 Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Tokai, Cape Town along with senior ANC leaders Walter Sisulu, Andrew Mlangeni, Ahmed Kathrada and Raymond Mhlaba; they believed that they were being isolated to remove their influence on younger activists
Although considering Mandela a dangerous "arch-Marxist",[157] in February 1985 Botha offered him a release from prison on condition that he '"unconditionally rejected violence as a political weapon"
In July 1993, both Mandela and de Klerk visited the US, independently meeting President Bill Clinton and each receiving the Liberty Medal.[196] Soon after, they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in Norway
In 2002, Mandela inaugurated the Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture, and in 2003 the Mandela Rhodes Foundation was created at Rhodes House, University of Oxford, to provide postgraduate scholarships to African students
He gave the closing address at the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban in 2000,[270] and in 2004, spoke at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok, Thailand
After a successful medical procedure in early March 2013, his lung infection recurred, and he was briefly hospitalised in Pretoria.
On 1 September 2013, Mandela was discharged from hospital
Apartheid was developed after World War II by the Afrikaner-dominated National Party and Broederbond organisations and was practised also in South West Africa
The government segregated education, medical care, beaches, and other public services, and provided black people with services inferior to those of white people
In May 1961, before the declaration of South Africa as a Republic, an assembly representing the banned ANC called for negotiations between the members of the different ethnic groupings, threatening demonstrations and strikes during the inauguration of the Republic if their calls were ignored.
When the government overlooked them, the strikers (among the main organisers was a 42-year-old, Thembu-origin Nelson Mandela) carried out their threats.
— Nelson Mandela, address to the United Nations as South African President, 3 October 1994
Since 1964 Mandela, leader of the African National Congress, had been in prison on Robben Island just off the coast of Cape Town, and it appeared that South Africa's security forces could handle any resistance to apartheid
Mandela described violence as the responsibility of the apartheid regime and said that with democracy there would be no need for violence.
On 10 May 1994, Mandela was sworn in as South Africa's president
The anniversary of the elections, 27 April, is celebrated as a public holiday in South Africa known as Freedom Day.
South African Secret Service prepared to assassinate Mandela in 1969 under the guise of a recapture. But British intelligence learned of the plot and foiled the operation.
Mandela rejected the tender
In 1996 he oversaw the enactment of a new democratic constitution. Mandela resigned his post with the ANC in December 1997, transferring leadership of the party to his designated successor, Thabo Mbeki.
First black president of South Africa (1994–99)
In April 1994 the Mandela-led ANC won South Africa’s first elections by universal suffrage, and on May 10 Mandela was sworn in as president of the country’s first multiethnic government.
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