Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Chapter 11 Gothic Art

Chapter 11 Gothic Art

Lora Davis

on 12 July 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Chapter 11 Gothic Art

Chapter 11
Art & Architecture
"Reformers might rant against ostentation, waste, and materialism but bishops, abbots, and civic leaders vied to build and decorate the largest, richest churches."
Art A Brief History, Third Edition p. 273

12. Helping: Samaritan
nurses the
13. Creation: Creating
14. "The Answer: Adam
dwelling in
15. Creation: Creating
16. Warning: God
Adam and Eve
Beginning in Ile-de- France and inspired by Christian narrative,
patrons and builders throughout Europe
created glorious dwelling places for God & the Saints.

Gothic art was ornate and decorative.

Achieved through the following ways...

I. Diversity of materials including metals

Bronze, ivory

II. Paint

Enamel, tempera

III. Size

Tiny to enormous
IV. Illumination and

became possible

In large stained glass window inserts, murals, panel paintings
and illuminated manuscripts
V. Architectural forms

Based on an adaptable skeletal framework
consisting of buttressed outside walls called a flying buttress
and an interior vault of
pointed archs and rib vaults.
In the span of 100 years, an estimated 2,700 churchs were
built in the Ile-de-France region alone.
One of the most famous
is the
Abbey Church of Saint-Denis.
Churches, Churches, everywhere...
The term "Gothic" was introduced
in the 16th century by Italian artist
and historian, Giorgio Vasari who attributed (and not favorably) the style to the Goths.
Remember, the Goths (Germanic invaders)
destroyed the classical civilization of the Roman Empire.
Vasari and his contemporaries
admired the Roman classical style.
**you might think of the Gothic style of
achitecture as the not so welcome "modern
art" of it's time.

The first and oldest university
in the western world
can be traced to Italy.
The University of Bologna
was founded in 1088 by students and for students.

St. Denis was built in two stages
by Abbott Suger. ("Sujay").
Inspired by the concept of "divine
luminosity", he began to reconstruct the
church in 1137, completed the west
facade and narthex in the 1140
and completed the choir in 1144.
He continued to reconstruct the nave but died in 1151 before it was finished .
Saint-Denis, was named after the Patron Saint of France.
The church became a place of pilgrimage and the burial place of the French Kings. The church was not used for the coronations of kings but queens were commonly crowned here.
The church is a large cruciform building of "basilica" form, that is, it has a central nave with lower aisles and clerestory windows.
What was so important about Abbot Suger's contribution was that he, along with his builders integrated all of the architectural features (ie...pointed arches,
ribbed groin vaults and buttresses) to create "...an architectural whole that emphasized open, flowing space."
The Abbey Church of Saint-Denis created a period of competition
and experimentation resulting in soaring churches with larger
interior spaces walled with huge expanses of colored glass. The Cathedral
of Notre-Dame in Chartres is built on the concepts of Saint-Denis.
These cathedral are, in short “Bibles in stone and glass.” Cathedrals like Notre-Dame (built 1194-ca. 1220) often required centuries to complete. They were, in fact, the result of intense religious devotion and the entire community from noble to peasant worked and gave of themselves to erect them.
The Flying Buttress
Engineering the impossible
Chartes Cathedral
Elements of the Gothic Cathedral
Rose Window
Stain glass
Decorated entrances
...an unusual element...gargoyles
Stain Glass
Decorated entrances/porches
...and an unusual element, gargoyles
How to Read a Gothic Cathedral...
The origins of the first stained glass windows are lost in history.
The technique probably came from jewelry making, cloisonné and mosaics.
Techniques of stained glass window construction were described by the monk Theophilus who wrote a
"how to" for craftsmen around 1100 AD.
It describes methods that have changed little
over 900 years:
"If you want to assemble simple windows, first mark out the dimensions of their length and breadth on a wooden board, then draw scroll work or anything else that pleases you, and select colors that are to be put in.
Cut the glass and fit the pieces together with the grozing iron.
Enclose them with lead cames..... and solder on both sides. Surround it with a wooden frame strengthened with nails and set it up in the place where you wish."
Illuminated Manuscripts
The Rose Window
Generally, the basic shape of a church or cathedral would be a cross.
Construction always began at the
East end of the cathedral; however,
it was the West end that functioned
as the important entrance.
The West entrance symbolized
the gate to heaven
and was often decorated with the most elaborate design and artistic effort.
Column statues characterize early Gothic church doorways
Royal Portal, west facade, Chartres Cathedral
In architecture, a gargoyle is a carved stone grotesque with a spout designed to convey water from a roof and away from the side of a building.
The word "Gargoyle" shares a root with the word "Gargle"; they come from an old French word for "Throat." A true gargoyle is a waterspout. An unusual carved creature that does not serve that purpose is properly called a "Grotesque."
On cathedrals, gargoyles served both purposes.
The basic ingredients for making glass are sand and wood ash (
The mixture is (
) melted into liquid at a high temperature which, when cooled, becomes glass.
To color the glass, certain powdered metals (
metalic oxides
) are added to the mixture while the glass is still molten.
To assemble the window, pieces of colored and painted glass are laid out on the design board with the edges of each piece fitted into H-shaped strips of lead (
These cames are soldered to one another so that the panel is secure.
When a panel is completed, putty is inserted between the glass and the lead cames for waterproofing.
The entire composition is then stabilized with an iron frame (
) and mounted in the window.
An arch built on the exterior of the building which helps support
the high rib-vaulted naves
by absorbing the outward pressure
of the nave vaulting
over the aisles
to massive wall buttresses.
lancets...tall, narrow window crowned by a sharp pointed arch
Besides being known for the new Gothic architecture and
impressive sculpture, France also became known for painting
and illustrated books.
books ranged from illustrated manuals to elaborate devotional
during the reign of Louis IX, production of high-quality manuscripts flourished

Beginning in the late 13th century, The Book of Hours became a new kind of popular private prayer book for those who could afford them... a sort of log or journal book of prayers and meditations which could be said at the 8 canonical hours
A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments which may be presented in several forms:
initials of chapters or paragraphs, ornamented sometimes very simply, sometimes on the other hand with a great profusion of interlacings, foliage, and flowers; these are developed along the whole length of the page and within are sometimes depicted persons or scenes from everyday life;
•paintings on the margin, in which some scene is carried over several pages;
•borders around the text (interlacing colonnades, etc.), the most remarkable example is that of the evangelistic canons of the Middle Ages;
•full-page paintings (or such as cover only a part of the page), but forming real pictures, similar to frescoes or easel pictures; these are chiefly found on very ancient or very recent manuscripts (fourteenth and fifteenth centuries);
•finally, there exist rolls of parchment wholly covered with paintings (Roll of Josue in the Vatican; Exultet Roll of S. Italy; see below
gilt (
covered in a thin layer of gold or other metal such as silver
) figures
voluminous draperies

Virgin and Child, silver gilt and enamel
Abbey of Saint-Denis
Nave, Salisbury Cathedral,
While French Gothic cathedrals
suggested the entrance to
paradise with mighty towers
and deep portals,
English Gothic suggests a jeweled wall
around paradise.

Along with the psalms, the book contains a calendar, the Mass and a prayer for the dead. The pages vary in their degree of illumination but many are richly covered with both decorated text and marginal pictures of saints and Bible stories, of rural life, farming, cooking, doctoring, spouses squabbling, musicians playing, etc. It is considered by some to be one of the richest sources for visual depictions of everyday rural life in England of the Middle Ages.

The English Gothic Cathedral
The German Gothic "Hall" church
The German Gothic church was the "Hall" church which featured a nave and side aisles with vaults of the same height which created a spacious and open interior that could accommodate large crowds
Duccio. Conjectural reconstruction of Virgin and Child in Majesty. 1308-1311, Temperal and gold on wood.
and then there was Giotto
Giotto di Bondone (c.1267 – January 8, 1337), better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence in the late Middle Ages. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance.
Giotto. Virgin and Child Enthroned. Florence.c. 1310. Tempera and gold on wood
The National Cathedral
in Washington, DC
Stain glass tells the story!
The Windmill Psalter
Rose Window
Stone masonary/CNN
National Cathedral
Moon Rock Window
Gothic art evolved from Romanesque art and lasted from the
mid-12th century to as late as the end of the 16th century
in some areas.
During the decline of the Roman Empire, the migrations of Germanic tribes from the east took over vast lands once ruled by Rome.
Goths, in the 3rd to the 6th century AD were an important power in the Roman world.
They were the first Germanic peoples to become Christians.
The union of barbarian vigor and religious spirit carried Europe to the threshold of modern times.
The medieval period of art history spans from the fall of the Roman Empire in 300 AD to the beginning of the Renaissance in 1400 AD.
In the Middle Ages, art evolves as humans continue addressing the traditional and the new, including Biblical subjects, Christian dogma, and Classical mythology.

The university as an institution was historically rooted in medieval society.
The university is traditionally thought of as an European institution.
However, the oldest existing, and continually operating educational institution in the world can be found in Morocco.
This traditional university functioned as a community of master teachers with inquiring learners.
The university was accorded certain rights, such as administrative autonomy, the determination of curriculum (courses of study) and to set the objectives of research as well as the award of publicly recognized degrees.
In the Middle Ages,
the University of Al Karaouin in Morrocco

played a significant role in the mediation of culture and knowledge between Muslims and Europeans.
The term

madrasa (arabic) means a place of learning.

Later, important universities such as
Oxford (1096), Cambridge (1209) were created.
Pardon my small bits of educational information.
Returning to
Gothic Art & Architecture...
The Rose Window...
an important feature of Gothic Cathedrals.
Center Scenes
Thank you for your attention!
The Medieval Calendar
Does this look like your classroom today?
Time, Time, Time
Medieval Society and Higher Education
Full transcript