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The Plant Cell

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tristan de jong

on 1 June 2015

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Transcript of The Plant Cell

Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
Organelles
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Ribosomes:
Organelles
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Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER):
Cytoplasm / Cytosol:
Organelles
The Nucleus:
The Shoot system
The cell observed in this PowerPoint is a cross-section stem cell. This cell is located along the edge of a sunflower stem and is part of the shoot system.
The Organelles of the Plant Cell
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The Sunflower Cell
In a cell, there are many different systems in which operate the cell. These systems are made up of structures called Organelles. Organelles work together to help the cell function.

The Organelles in a plant cell include:
Cell Membrane
Golgi Bodies
Vacuoles
Nucleus
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic
Reticulum

Organelles
Cytoplasm
Lysosome
Mitochondria
Cell Wall
Chloroplasts
Throughout this PowerPoint you will explore the many different Organelles of a sunflower cell, the funtion and task of each Organelle, and how the Organelles interact with others.
A cross-section sunflower stem cell
The shoot system (external): The shoot system is the visible part of a plant, above the ground. It is made up of the stem, the
node
(attachment from branch / internode to leaf), and the
internode
(space between the stem and the leaves).
The shoot system (internal): In the shoot system, there are three main tissues. These include the
dermal
,
ground
, and
vascular
tissues. The cell I am observing is part of the vascular tissue. The vascular tissue has two systems:
xylem
and
phloem
. This cell is part of phloem.
xylem: conduction of water and minerals
phloem: produces products of photosynthesis
Cell Membrane:
The heads of phospholipids are "hydrophilic" (water loving) and are compatable with both the water within the cytosol of the cell and the surroundings of the cell.
(B)
The hidden tails of phospholipids are "hydrophobic" (water fearing) and are not compatable with liquids.
(A)
phospholipids
Golgi bodies:
The Vacuole is a membrane bound sac with little internal structure. In a plant, the Vacuole is very prominent in the centre of the cell, pushing all other organelles up against the membrane.It takes nothing from the cell and produces nothing for the cell. Instead, it acts as a vacuum and stores things for the cell. The contents of the vacuole may contain:
atmosperic gases
inorganic salts
organic acids
sugars
Golgi are stacks of membrane bound structures known as cisternae that are important for packaging macromolecules. They act as factories in which process proteins from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and transports them to various places in the cell.
Vacuole (Central):
Every cell is enclosed in a membrane- a double layer of phospholipids. The membrane acts as a protective barrier for the cell. The membrane is made complex because of its numerous proteins, as well as pores responsible for the controlled entry of ions.
pigments (the kind of pigments that give flowers, example the rose, it's colour)
The Nucleus is the control centre of all cells. It is enclosed in a double membrane and the most obvious organelle in a cell. The Nucleus contains most of the cells genetic material (long linear DNA molecules and proteins called
chromosomes
etc.) that provides the cell it's unique characteristics.
Chromosomes are string like structures within the nucleus
that hold genes called nuclear genome. The nucleus maintains
the integrity of these genes and regulates the gene expression.
Although the Nucleus does not have any membrane bound
compartments, it has uniforms that are made from the proteins
and chromosomes within. The best known of these is the
Nucleoulus. The main function of the Nucleoulus is to assemble
chromosones.
Throughout a cell, there is a widespread of membrane-bound vesicles and tubules called the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). The ER is a continuation of the outer membrane of the nucleus. The ER is made up of two components: Rough ER and the Smooth ER.

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) is an extensive flat sac that is continuous with the nucleur membrane. It is know as the "rough" ER because it is dappled on the ouside layer with ribosomes. The main function of the RER is to transport organized proteins and ribosomes througout the cell.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:
The Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) is more tubular than the RER and is it's own seperate sealed network. Unlike the RER, the SER is not dappled in ribosomes, hense "smooth" ER. The main funtion of the SER is to detoxify organic chemicals to water-soluble products. The SER is also responsible for making fats and membrane proteins.
Ribosomes are small, dense structures that play an important role in the assembly of protein chains. They are composed of two parts: a large subunit and a small subunit.
Messenger RNA
(mRNA) from the
nucleus moves along
the ribosomes, while
the
transfer RNA

(tRNA) adds individual
amino acid
to the protein chain.
Chloroplasts:
Chloroplasts are specialized organelles found in all higher plant cells. Chloroplast contain chlorophyll which is responsible for giving a plant its green colour and it's ability to absorb energy from sunlight (photosynthesis). Chloroplast have
a double membrane
and within is a liquid
called
stroma
. The
stroma contains stocks
of structures called
thylakoids
(stocks=
granum
)
Cytoplasm is the unified term for Cytosol. Cytosol is known as the jelly like liquid or soup that contains all the organelles of a cell. The
microfilaments
and the
microtubules
make the skeleton of a cell and the cytosol fill in the spaces. Though the cytosol is mostly water, it also has varies of multi functioning proteins.
Lysosome:
Lysosome is a specialized vesicle that hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The main function of the Lysosome is to digest things. It may be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.
Mitochondria:
Mitochindrion are best known as the power houses of a cell. They provide the energy that a cell needs to move, divide, contract, etc. The mitochondria is a double membrane organelle, the outer membrane used to surround the organelle and the inner folds many times to form a
cristae
. It is in the cristae that the food (sugar) is combined with oxygen to make ATP - a primary source of energy for the cell.
Cell Wall:
Cell Walls are only found in plant cells. They are made up of specialized sugars called cellulose. The main function of the cell wall is to maintain the shape of the cell and act as a protective barrier. When a plant stores ions, sugars, and other solutes, this causes an inflow of water. This water expands the vacuole and pushes against the cell wall. This action is called turgor pressure and is responsible for the crispness of fresh vegetables.
The sunflower cell
Throughout this PowerPoint you have been shown the different cell systems of a plant. You also now know the different characteristics and functions of a sunflower cell and it's organelles.
Hopefully, now you have a better understanding about a plant cell and its important role in functioning a plant.
Thanks for listening !
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