Data Analysis

- Andrew Krishtal The process of converting information from a questionnaire so it can be read by a computer is referred to as a data preparation List of Content:

1. Data Preparation Process

2. Data Validation

3. Data Editing & Coding

4. Data Entry

5. Error Detection

6. Data Tabulation

7. Graphs & Charts

8. Measures of Central Tendency Data Entry Data Tabulation Measures of Central Tendency Range

The distance between the smallest and largest values in a set of responses Graphs & Charts ~ The End ~ - Those tasks involved with the direct input of the coded data into some specified software package that ultimately allows the research analyst to manipulate and transform the raw data into useful information Tabulation - the process of counting the number of observations that are classified into certain categories Histogram

Form of a bar chart where each bar's height is the relative or cumulative frequency of a value of a specific Variable Measures of summarizing and condensing all the information in order to get at the underlying meaning This process follows a 5 step approach

Data Validation

Data Editing & Coding

Data Entry

Error Detection

Data Tabulation Data Validation

The process of determining, to the extend possible, whether a survey's interview or observations were conducted correctly and are free of fraud or bias

Validation Process attempts to cover 5 areas:

Fraud

Screening

Procedure

Completeness

Courtesy Data Editing & Coding

The process whereby the raw data are checked for mistakes made by either interviewer or the respondent

Through a manual scanning of each completed interview, the researcher can check several areas of concern

1) Proper asking of questions

2) Proper recording of answers

3) Proper screening of respondents

4) Proper recording of open-ended questions Coding

Grouping and assigning value to various responses from the survey instrument

4 steps process to develop codes for the anticipated responses

1. Generating a list of as many responses as possible

2. Consolidation

3. Assign a numerical value as a code

4. Assign a code value to each response 2 forms of D.T. in marketing research projects

One way tabulation

Cross-tabulation Simultaneously treating two or more variables in the study; categorizing the number of respondents who have answered two or move questions Categorization of single variables existing in a study Line Chart

Connects a series of data points with a continuous line, allowing for multiple comparison by the view

* Charts for a display of relative proportions

*Each section is the relative proportion, as a % of total area of the pie Pie or Round Charts Measures of Central Tendency

Mean

Mode

Median

Rage

Standart Deviation Mean

The arithmetical avg. of the sample; all values of a distribution of responses are summed and divided by the number of valid responses Mode

The most common value in the set of responses to a question; that is. the response most often given to a question Median

The middle value of a rank-ordered distribution; exactly half of the responses are above and half are below the median value Mean

The arithmetic avg of the sample; all values of a distribution of responses are summed and divided bu the number of valid responses Standard Deviation

The avg. distance of the distribution values from the mean Sources:

Joseph F. Hair Jr; Robert P. Bush and David J.Ortinaou; Marketing Research; Chapters 15-16

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# Data Analysis

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