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Myths, Legends, Fables, and Folktales

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Savanna Tutt

on 2 August 2016

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Transcript of Myths, Legends, Fables, and Folktales

III. Types of Archetypes
V. Myths
VI. Fables
IV. Legends
in Literature
Myths, Legends, Fables, and Folktales
I. What is
Storytelling
?
a. Storytelling is common to every
culture
. Most people enjoy listening to
stories.
b. Storytellers have catered for the need for a '
good story
' since the
beginning of
civilization
.
II. Archetype
a. Archetypes are the basic building
blocks
of stories that all writers use
to create a world to which readers can escape.
b. All cultures around the world use them to build their
stories
.
c. Examples of Archetypes:
i. The
hero
, the
damsel
in distress, the battle between
good
and
evil
,
bargaining with the
devil
, etc.
VII. Folktales
VIII. Purpose for Stories
a. Situational Archetypes
b. Symbolic Archetypes
c. Character Archetypes
i. The
Journey
1. The
hero
goes in search of some
truth or information to restore life to the kingdom.
ii. The
Quest
1. Search for someone or some object,
which when it is found and brought back will restore life to a wasted land, the desolation of which is shown by a leader's illness and disability.
iii.
Death
and
Rebirth
1. Grows out of a
parallel
between the
cycle of nature and the cycle of life. Thus, morning and springtime represent birth, youth, or rebirth, evening and winter suggest old age
or death.
iv. Battle Between
Good
and
Evil
1. Obviously the battle between two
primal forces. Mankind shows eternal optimism in the continual portrayal of good triumphing over evil despite great odds.
v. The
Ritual
1. The actual ceremonies that initiate
experiences that will mark his rite of passage into another state. (weddings, funerals)
i.
Light
vs.
Darkness
Heaven
vs.
Hell
iv. Magic
Weapon
1. Light suggests hope, renewal, or intellectual
illumination; darkness suggests the unknown, ignorance, or despair.
1. God lives in the sky; evil
forces live in the
bowels
of the earth.
iii.
Supernatural
Intervention
1. The gods most often intervene on the
side of the hero to assist him in his quest.
1. Some object used to fight
the forces of evil that has magical properties.
i. The
Hero
1. Circumstances of birth are unusual,
some attempt s made at birth to kill him; raised by foster parents, returns to his kingdom to right wrongs, marries a princess, becomes a king.
ii.
Mentor
1. Teacher or counselor to the hero;
often are father or mother figures to the hero or heroine.
iii.
Star-Crossed
Lovers
1. Two lovers forbidden to be
together because of the rules of society or family; often ends tragically.
iv. Creature of Nightmare
1. Animal or creature disfigured or
mutated; monsters are the antagonists in the story.
v. Temptress
1. Sensuous
beauty
; brings about the
her's downfall because he is physically attracted to her.
a. A legend usually includes an element of
truth, or based on historic facts, but with '
mythical qualities'
.
b. Usually involve heroic characters or
fantastic places and often encompass the spiritual beliefs of the culture in which they originate.
c. Based on
real
people who lived in more
recent times and are mentioned in history. They are told for a
purpose
and are based on
facts
, but they are not completely true.
d. Passed off as a true story and handed
down from generation to generation.
e. Characteristics of a
Legend
i. A story from the past about a subject that was, or is
believed to have been, historical.
ii. Many legends tell about human beings who meet
supernatural creatures.
iii.
Historical
but not always factual.
f. Urban Legends
i. Modern
folklore
consisting of stories believed
by their tellers to be true.
ii. Set in today's time; not historical.
iii. Contains an element of
mystery
,
horror
,
fear
,
or
humor
.
iv. Rarely able to be traced to original origins and
if they can be traced, the connections are often obscured by the later embellishment or adaptation.
i. To
strengthen
the community and provide a common
understanding. Stories often reflect the beliefs of the people who tell them.
ii. As a way of providing
moral guidance
and to show people
how they should conduct themselves.
iii. The stories warn of the consequences of not making the
right choices.
vi. To pass on
history
and
knowledge
, such as
the outcome of battles and tales of courage, in ages when many people could read or write.
vii. For
fame
,
money
or
recognition

- a good story could enhance the teller's status, line their pockets with gold or build their reputation.
iv. To explain how the world works, for example why the
seasons change, and to explain strange
happenings
or
phenomena
such as eclipses.
v. Purely for
entertainment
. Stories were told to amuse
and enthrall an audience in the days before TV and other forms of mass entertainment.
a. A folktale is a popular story that
was passed on in
spoken form
, from one generation to the next.
b. Usually the author is unknown
and there are often many versions of the tale. Folktales comprise
fables
,
fairy tales
,
old legends
and even
urban
legends.
c. These particular tales are written
specially for
children
, often about magical characters such as elves, fairies, goblins and giants. Sometimes the characters are animals.
e. Characteristics of Folktales
i. Begins with a phrase such as, "Once upon a time...",
or "There once was..."
ii. About
ordinary
people (or animals) and
everyday

life.
iii. The number
three
is significant and repeated
often.
iv. There are good and bad characters.
v. Good characters gave a problem to solve.
vi. Animals can
talk
.
vii.
Wishes
are granted.
viii. Happy ending - good
wins
over bad.
f. Famous Pieces
a. A fable is another type of story, also
passed down from
generation
to
generation
and told to teach a lesson about something. A fable usually ends with a
moral
, or a short sentence with a lesson about life.
b. Fables are often about
animals
,
plants
,
and
natural
forces like thunder or wind, that can talk and act like people.
c. The most famous fables were written by
a man from ancient Greece called
Aesop
. We know them as Aesop's Fables, and he wrote more than 600 of them. The story of
The Tortoise and the Hare
was written by him
d. Elements of Fables
i. Animals are usually the main
characters.
ii. The
plot
and
characters
are.
iii. Stories teach a moral or lesson.
iv. Setting is
common
and nonspecific.
v. Author uses
personification
.
c. Myths are
stories
that try to explain how
our world works and how we should treat each other. They are usually set in times long ago, before history as we know it was written.
d. People have always asked questions like
"How did our world come to be?" or "Why is the ocean blue?" Some myths answered these questions.
e. In many myths, gods or "
super-
beings
" used their powers to make events happen. These myths described people and the choices they made.
i. They might be about
victory

(achieving something),
tragedy
(losing something),
honor
(doing the right thing) being
brave
even when you are frightened, or being
foolish
and making mistakes.
ii. Heroes, gods and goddesses could
help them or make things more difficult for them.
f. Around the
world
, myths were shared
by different groups of people and became part of the culture.
g. For early people, myths were like
science
because they explained how natural events work. However, these stories were made up and are not really true.
a. The word mythology is Greek in origin
(etymology)
i.
Muthos
- story
ii.
Logo
- speech or argument.
b. A myth '
conveys a truth
' to those who
tell it and hear it, rather than necessarily recording a true event.
h. Which cultures have myths?
i. Every culture has its own
mythology
.
ii. Universal symbols and themes appear in
different cultures' myth.
iii.
Greek, Roman, Native American, Celtic,
South American, African
, and
Norse
Mythology are examples of myths from different cultures.
i. Characteristics of Myths
i. The gods and goddesses have
human
emotions
.
ii. Contain magic.
iii. Gods and goddesses often appear on earth in
disguises
.
iv. Myths teach a lesson or explain the natural world.
j. Why did ancient people tell myths?
i. To help explain the
unexplainable
.
ii. To explain natural phenomenon.
iii. To tell about their heroes.
iv. To explain human nature.
v. To teach
morals
and
values
.
a. There are many reasons why stories are told and passed
down through generations. Here are a few of them:
i.
Hans Christian Andersen
is famous for
writing fairy tales. Examples of his stories are "The Little Mermaid," "Thumbelina," "The Ugly Duckling," and "The Red Shoes."
ii.
Jacob
and
Wilheml Grimm
were
brothers, born in Germany in 1785 and 1786. They collected together many old fairy tales from different parts of Germany and wrote them down for people to read. We know them as the
Brothers Grimm
. Examples of their stories are"Cinderella," "Snow White," and "The Frog Prince."
SHREK Archetypes
Death and Rebirth
Battle Between Good and Evil
Star-Crossed Lovers
Evil Figure with a Good Heart
Creature of Nightmare
The Journey
Hero
Quest
Task
Hunting Group of Companions
Friendly Beast
Damsel in Distress
Heaven vs. Hell
Light vs. Darkness
When they escape the dragon, morning is dawning suggesting hope and rebirth.
Shrek and Donkey vs. the Dragon and later Farquaad.
Dragons Donkeys aren't supposed to be together...
Dragon appears at first as an Evil Figure, especially with the remains of the knights, but Donkey saves her and converts her to good.
Fifi from Shrek Ever After.
Shrek and Donkey face their fears and conquer the dragon, finding Fiona to accomplish their task.
Shrek...literally doing superhuman deeds.
To find Arthur and bring him back to Far Far Away.
To get his swamp back from the fairy creatures.
The fairy tale characters help Shrek adventures.
Gingy
The princesses
The bad witches live in the darkness.
The castle is dark to represent evil; as soon as they escape, they emerge into daytime since they have escaped evil.
Example of Legends
A man who could have been King Arthur is known to have lived in the 5th or 6th century, but the stories of the Knights of the Round Table and Merlin the Magician are probably not true. The point was hat knights and their king defended and helped their people.
The character and deeds of Robin Hood may have been based on someone else. Robin of Loxley lived in Nottinghamshire around the time of the story, and he did help the poor. However, did he live in Nottingham forest with a band of robbers? Probably not, but helping other people is important and the legend hasn't been forgotten.
Gods and Goddesses in Classical Mythology
Full transcript