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Transcript of Cooperative Federalism
Federalism Both state, local, and federal governments held their own powers and responsibilities, giving them a sense of independence. Even so, the distribution of powers between them prevented any one institution or group from taking over, and gave citizens more participation in their government. What is Cooperative Federalism? Cooperative Federalism is a political concept that emphasizes the decentralization of power. Stefan is a FAGGOT FDR's New Deal program increased the flow of federal dollars to the states for multiple public work programs, and the federal grant-in-aid programs defined the relationships between states and the federal government. Most of the grants were categorical grants, which were grants given to the states as long as they fulfilled the requirements set by the federal government. The grants were a discreet way of controlling the states and having them do the federal government's bidding. Even so, many grants went towards what states believed was beneficial, so both sides were content. The Great Society Program was an attempt by Lyndon B. Johnson to combat poverty and discrimination. Federal funds were given to the state and local governments as well as citizen action groups to alleviate problems that the states could not or were not willing to resolve, such as education issues, urban renewal, and poverty programs. Historical Events/Actions The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862, which gave states public land to sell and then use the profits to support agricultural and mechanical arts colleges, is believed to be the origin of the idea of the categorical grant. Defining Characteristics of the Era The New Deal showed the extension of power and scope of the federal government, with the creation of the various government organizations, such as the CCC and the FHA. Although many people, as well as the Supreme Court, were skeptical of the extended federal government power, the Court eventually began passing New Deal legislation more frequently after the Court Packing scheme incident. Local governments became equal partners with gained power as FDR relied on the political machines in larger cities to bring in votes and support for New Deal legislation. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin Steel Co. (1937) The NLRB brought the suit against the company for engaging in unfair labor practices, specifically, firing certain employees based on union affiliation. Brought up the question, "May Congress regulate the practices under which goods involved in interstate commerce are produced?" Found that almost any activity that affects interstate commerce is open to Congressional regulation. The large increase in federal spending made it appear that, although the state and local governments were playing a larger role in decision making, the federal government was simply buying them out. United States v. Darby (1941) Darby was charged with violating the Fair Labor Standards Act by failing to comply with minimum wage and hour requirements for employees. Johnson's Great Society used federal grants in ways which the federal government deemed best. By not using the state's input on decisions, the federal government overstepped their boundaries and made decisions that benefited themselves, losing the trust of the state governments. Brought up the question, "Do the wages and hours of local employees have such a substantial impact on interstate commerce as to allow Congress to constitutionally regulate them?" The Supreme Court ruled in favor of Congress because these powers were reserved in the Commerce Clause of the Constitution. Supreme Court Cases Cooperative Federalism functioned by having the federal government create policies, and the state government influenced those policies with the growth of federal grants, while the local governments influenced the federal government by raising enough support for legislation. Did It Work?
Federal government grants public lands to the states.
Federal grants-in-aid programs and other block grants.
State aid in conducting, financing, and regulating elections.
State aid in helping handle federal criminals. Examples of Cooperative Federalism Overall, cooperative federalism worked when it benefited all three participating governments. But it was very easy for the federal government to abuse their powers and make decisions favoring them, as with the Great Society. This can anger state and local governments, resulting in them not cooperating and ruining the basis of which cooperative federalism relies upon.