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Civics and Economics Chapter 4 Lesson 1

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Bryan Poepperling

on 10 February 2014

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Transcript of Civics and Economics Chapter 4 Lesson 1

Chapter 4 Structure and Powers of the National Government
The Three Branches of Government
Ensuring Limited Government
- Limited government: the fundamental principal that explains how government must remain under the control of the people

- To ensure that government would be limited, the founding fathers divided up the powers of government by using the principals of federalism, separation of powers, and checks and balances
Checks and Balances
- The Constitution gives each branch of government a way to check, or limit, the exercise of power by the other two branches

- This prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful and controlling government
Our Federal System of Government
- The Constitution creates a government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and the state governments
- Known as Federalism

- Delegated powers: those given to the federal government by the people. They delegate or grant authority to the federal
government to exercise power on their behalf

- Reserved powers: those reserved to, or set aside for,
the states.

- Concurrent powers: powers shared by state and
national government
Mr. Poepperling
Standards and Objectives
Lesson 1: Separation of Powers, Checks, and Balances
Ticket Out Of The Door
What are the most important terms, concepts, or ideas from this lesson?
Make a list!
1. Students will be able to describe the structure of the United States government

2. Students will be able to explain the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the United States government

3. Students will be able to explain how each branch of the U.S. government has a system of checks and balances to protect against an abuse of power by any one branch

VA Standards of Learning
CE. 6b- Students will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government at the national level by describing the structure and powers of the national government

CE. 6b- Students will explain the principle of separation of powers and the operation of checks and balances
Federal System of Government
-Federal and State-

Concurrent powers:
- Power to tax
- Maintain courts
- Borrow money
National Government

Delegated powers:
-Coin money
- Declare war
- Maintain an army
- Sign treaties

State Government

Reserved powers:
- Regulate interstate trade
- Establish schools
- Establish local government
- Pass statewide laws

Executive Branch
Legislative Branch
Judicial Branch

- Article I of the Constitution
lays out the structure and powers of the federal government
- This branch makes the laws we follow every day.
- Congress is bicameral: Made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate

House of Reps.
- 435 members

- Representatives are based on state's population

- Representatives serve 2 year terms
- 100 members

- Each state has 2 senators

- Senators serve 6 year terms
Powers of Congress

- Makes money through taxes

- Regulates trade with foreign countries

- Coins and standardizes money

- Declares war (and makes rules for armed forces)

- Makes laws for the country
- Elects President and V.P. if no candidate gets a majority in the Electoral College

- Approves the budget prepared by executive branch

- Proposes amendments to Constitution

- Admits new states to the Union

- Can impeach the President
How do you become a federal judge?
- The President nominates federal judges, including justices of the Supreme Court
How long do federal judges serve?
- Federal judges serve for life, as long as the demonstrate "good behavior"
What happens after nomination?
- The Senate reviews the qualifications of the nominees and confirms or rejects the appointments
Powers of the Judicial Branch
- The main function of the courts is to interpret the Constitution and federal laws and apply them to cases brought before the courts
Federal courts try
cases involving federal law
Landmark Supreme Court cases
- Plessy v. Ferguson (1896): Separate but equal
- Brown v. Board of Education (1954): Separate but equal is not ok
- Roe v. Wade (1973): Woman's decision to have an abortion
- Miranda v. Arizona (1966): Police must read criminals their rights
- Marbury v. Madison (1803): Congress cannot pass laws that go against the Constitution
Judicial Review
- The Supreme Court has the power to overturn any law that it judges to be in conflict with the Constitution
Federal courts resolve questions involving interpretation of the U.S. Constitution
Executive Branch
- Article II of the Constitution lays out the structure and powers of the executive branch

- Responsibility: carrying out the nation's laws
- Made up of many departments, agencies, and bureaus
- The President manages all of these groups
- Most important duty: set goals for the nation and develop policies to reach those goals

- The President appoints Cabinet officers, ambassadors, and federal judges
White House Staff
- Includes the President's advisors and assistants:
- Press secretaries, legal experts, speechwriters, office workers, researchers, and chief of staff
Denis McDonough
Special Advisory Groups
- Help the President make decisions on domestic and foreign policy
- Two most important: - Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
- National Security Council (NSC)
- OMB prepares the President's budget for presentation to Congress
- NSC helps the President make foreign policy
Executive Departments
- Form the largest part of the executive branch and do most of the work needed to carry out the nation's laws and programs
- Include the Departments of:
- Agriculture - Health and Human Services - Labor
- Commerce - Homeland Security - State
- Defense - Housing and Urban Development - Transportation
- Education - Interior - Treasury
- Energy - Justice - Veterans Affairs

The Vice President
- The Constitution gives the V.P. no duties except for voting to break a tie in the Senate and succeeding to the presidency if the President cannot finish his or her term
- The President decides what the Vice President will do
Joe Biden
Establishment of Judges
- Article III of the Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government and makes the Supreme court the highest in the U.S.
9 Judges in
the Supreme Court!!

- The division of power between the national government and state governments

- Some power is granted to the federal government, some is granted to the states

- Other powers are exercised by both federal and state governments

- The division of power helps prevent the federal government from gaining too much power
Separation of Powers
- The Constitution divides the national government into three branches, and articles I, II, and III of the Constitution define separate powers for each branch

- Each branch has it's own area of authority, but no one branch has complete power over the government
Checks and Balances
Legislative Branch
Checks on Executive Branch:
- Can override president's veto
- Ratifies treaties
- Can declare war
- Can budget money
- Can impeach a president
Executive Branch
- Checks on Legislative Branch:
- Can propose laws
- Can veto laws
- Can call Congress into session
- Can appoint people to offices
- Negotiates treaties
Judicial Branch
Checks on Executive Branch:
- Can declare executive actions unconstitutional
Checks on Judicial Branch:
- Creates lower federal courts
- Can impeach judges
- Can propose amendments to overrule judicial decisions
- Approves new judges
- Checks on Judicial Branch:
- Appoints federal judges

- Can grant pardons to federal offenders
Checks on Legislative Branch
- Can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
1. What is federalism and how does it affect the United States government?

2. What are the main jobs of each branch of the United States government?

3. Give one example of a check and balance among the branches of government.
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